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Generating Quality Prospects With Lead Clubs , Insurance Sales, September 1989. Dress For Success Essay! Murder At The Focus Group, or: Kill The Idea, Not The Messenger , Marketing News, September 11, 1989, Volume 23, Number 19, page 43-44. Essay! Tips On Cost-Justifying Marketing: Tend To The Details , Savings Institutions Magazine, October 1989. Essay! The Why's Of Focus Groups , Cable Marketing, December 1989. Jason Toff Resume! Focus Group Spurt Predicted For The 1990's , Marketing News, January 8, 1990, Volume 24, Number 1, page 21. Dress! What The '90's Will Hold For Focus Group Research , Advertising Age, January 22, 1990. Focus Group Caveat: The Kill-The-Messenger Syndrome , Bank Marketing, February 1990, page 38.

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The Answer Is No--Here's Why . Dress Essay! Financial Marketing, May-June 1991, page 9. Start! Answer To Moderator Problems Starts With Asking Right Questions , Marketing News, May 27, 1991, Volume 25, Number 11, pages 8-9. Doing Your Own Focus Group Is Like Fixing Your Own Plumbing , Marketing News, May 27, 1991, Volume 25, Number 11, pages 8-9. For Success! How To Conduct Successful Focus Group Research With Physicians , Healthcare Marketing Report, May 1991, Volume 9, Number 5, pages 16-17. Two Sided Essay! Should You Do Your Own Focus Groups? The Answer Is No -- And Here's Why , Bank Marketing, June 1991, page 39. For Success Essay! Focus Groups Versus One-On-One's: The Controversy Continues , Marketing News, September 2, 1991, page 16. Outside Moderators Maximize Focus Group Results , Public Relations Journal, September 1991, pages 31 32.

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Focus Groups For Advertising Copy Research , Product Management Today, February 1994, pages 30-34. Dress Essay! Improving Promotion Campaigns Through Focus Groups , The Banker's Magazine, March/April 1994, pages 17-19. Success Education! Observing A Focus Group Takes As Much Skill As Moderating It , Marketing News, August 29, 1994, Volume 28, No. Essay! 18, page 17. Apple Picking Analysis Essay! Focus Group Research: A Useful Tool , HR Focus, September 1994, page 3. Dress For Success! Uses And Abuses Of Focus Groups For Advertising Copy Research , Financial Marketing, November/December 1994, pages 3-4. Chlorine! Focus Groups On The Internet: An Interesting Idea But Not A Good One , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, May 1995, pages 12 46. Essay! Using Focus Groups Effectively In Packaging Research , Marketing News, June 5, 1995, page H34.

Using Focus Groups To Solve Naming Problems , Bank Marketing, December 1995, pages 11, 52-53. Making It Work For You Behind The One-Way Mirror , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, December 1995, pages 22 50. Paid And Sent - A Note Of Caution , QRCA Views, Spring 1996, page 4. Two Sided Argumentative Structure! The Focus Group Bill Of Rights , QRCA Views, Spring 1996, page 11. Dress For Success Essay! Understanding Focus Group Research Abroad , Marketing News, June 3, 1996, page H-14 H-36. Two Sided Essay! A Moderator's View Of Focus Group Videoconferencing , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, June/July, 1996, pages 24-25, 45.

Focus Group By Video: Next Trend Of The 90's , Marketing News, July 29, 1996, page 4. Essay! The Focus Group Research Bill Of Rights , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, October, 1996, page 62. Start Chlorine! Internet Focus Groups: An Oxymoron , Marketing News, March 3, 1997; pages 35-36. Dress For Success! Getting The Most From Focus Group Moderators , Product Management Today, March, 1997, pages 26-27. Apple Analysis! Is Your Moderator Ready For Videoconferencing? FocusVision News, March 1997, Volume 1, Number 3, pages 2-3. Essay! Using Focus Groups To Add Depth To Your Focus On Quality , The Quality Observer, April, 1997, pages 30-31. Start Chlorine! Note To Clients: Hands Off Moderator Report , Marketing News, June 9, 1997, page 8. Dress For Success Essay! Focus Groups: A Help Or A Waste Of Time? Product Management Today, July 1997, pages.

The Focus Group Report: What Is The Moderator's Responsibility? Quirk's Marketing Research Review, December 1997, pages 46-47. Careers Writing! Virtual Offices: A Potential Disaster For Quality Employee Output , The Quality Observer, January/February 1998, pages 38-39. Dress For Success Essay! Avoiding A Virtual Disaster, HR Focus, February 1998, pages 11-12. Thesis Form! Internet Focus Groups Are Not Focus Groups - So Don't Call Them That , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, July 1998, pages 62-63. Essay! 10 Tips For Running Successful Focus Groups , Marketing News, September 14, 1998, pages 25-26. Two Sided Argumentative! Managing The Virtual Office Environment - A Challenge Of The 90's , The; Featured in dress for success essay the Work/Life Channel, March 1999. Thesis Form! Career Services: A Key To Successful Freshman Class Recruiting In The Future , Recruitment Retention In Higher Education, June 1999; Volume 13, No. Dress Essay! 6.; pages 1-2. After Analysis Essay! Online Groups Seem Out Of Focus To Some Traditional Researchers , Business Marketing, October 1999, page 10.

Focus Groups vs. Online , Advertising Age, February 14, 2000, page 34. Essay! Let Experts Decide In Marketing Research , Marketing News, August 14, 2000, page H24. Toff! Conducting Focus Groups With Disabled Respondents , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, December 2000, pages 28-31. Online Focus Groups Are No Substitute For The Real Thing , Quirk's Marketing Research Review, June 2001, pages 16 67. Essay! Interview - Affordable Focus Groups - Crimp the essay education Cost Without Imperiling Quality By Doing So In The right Places, by for success Michelle Tirado; January 16, 2000. Resume! Business This Morning - CBS The Financial News Network , May 25, 1988 - Topic: Focus Groups. Focus Groups - Success Magazine , April 1990 Issue. Dress For Success! Focus Group Research (KNUS Radio - 710 - The Business Station) Denver, Colorado. Thesis Form! May 3, 1990. Dress Essay! Live telephone interview. Careers Writing! Focusing On Consumer's Needs and dress, Motivations, Business Marketing Magazine , March 1991.

Anybody Ever Hear Of Global Focus Groups? Marketing News , May 27, 1991, Volume 25, Number 11, page 14. That Involve Creativity! The Self-Made Expert - Success Magazine , March 1993 Issue. Executive Edition, American Airlines , Fall, 1994. Dress Essay! Interactive Research, Marketing News , January 20, 1997, page 1 17. Essay Education! The Practical Handbook and for success, Guide To Focus Group Research: Adweek , November 30, 1992. Journal Of Marketing Research , February 1989. After Picking Essay! Quirk's Marketing Research Review , March 1990. The Consultant's Manual, A Complete Guide To Building A Successful Consulting Practice. For Success! The Handbook For Focus Group Research - Revised Expanded: Quirk's Marketing Research Review , October 1993. Writing Creativity! Marketing Research , Fall, 1993.

Hermes Columbia Business School , Spring 1994. Journal Of Marketing , July 1994. For Success! Journal Of Marketing Research , August 1994.

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Platonism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Platonism about mathematics (or mathematical platonism ) is the metaphysical view that there are abstract mathematical objects whose existence is independent of us and our language, thought, and practices. Just as electrons and planets exist independently of us, so do numbers and dress for success essay sets. And just as statements about electrons and planets are made true or false by the objects with which they are concerned and these objects' perfectly objective properties, so are statements about structure numbers and dress for success sets. Mathematical truths are therefore discovered, not invented. The most important argument for the existence of abstract mathematical objects derives from Gottlob Frege and goes as follows (Frege 1953). The language of mathematics purports to refer to and quantify over abstract mathematical objects.

And a great number of mathematical theorems are true. But a sentence cannot be true unless its sub-expressions succeed in doing what they purport to do. So there exist abstract mathematical objects that these expressions refer to and quantify over. Frege's argument notwithstanding, philosophers have developed a variety of objections to mathematical platonism. Essay Success Education! Thus, abstract mathematical objects are claimed to be epistemologically inaccessible and metaphysically problematic. Mathematical platonism has been among the most hotly debated topics in the philosophy of mathematics over dress for success, the past few decades. Mathematical platonism can be defined as the conjunction of the two sided structure, following three theses: There are mathematical objects.

Mathematical objects are abstract. Mathematical objects are independent of dress intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices. Some representative definitions of resume ‘mathematical platonism’ are listed in dress the supplement. and document that the above definition is fairly standard. Platonism in general (as opposed to platonism about mathematics specifically) is any view that arises from the above three claims by replacing the thesis form, adjective ‘mathematical’ by any other adjective. The first two claims are tolerably clear for essay present purposes. Existence can be formalized as ‘∃ x Mx ’, where ‘ Mx ’ abbreviates the predicate ‘ x is a mathematical object’ which is true of start all and dress for success only the objects studied by essay chlorine pure mathematics, such as numbers, sets, and functions. Abstractness says that every mathematical object is abstract, where an object is said to essay be abstract just in case it is education, non-spatiotemporal and (therefore) causally inefficacious. (For further discussion, see the entry on abstract objects.) Independence is essay, less clear than the other two claims. What does it mean to ascribe this sort of independence to an object?

The most obvious gloss is probably the counterfactual conditional that, had there not been any intelligent agents, or had their language, thought, or practices been different, there would still have been mathematical objects. It is doubtful that this gloss will do the careers creativity, work that Independence is supposed to dress for success do (see Section 5.3); for essay education now, Independence will be left somewhat schematic. Platonism must be distinguished from the view of the essay, historical Plato. Few parties to the contemporary debate about education platonism make strong exegetical claims about Plato's view, much less defend it. Although the view which we are calling ‘platonism’ is dress for success, inspired by Plato's famous theory of abstract and success education eternal Forms (see the dress, entry on Plato's metaphysics and epistemology), platonism is now defined and debated independently of its original historical inspiration. Not only careers involve is the platonism under discussion not Plato's, platonism as characterized above is a purely metaphysical view: it should be distinguished from for success other views that have substantive epistemological content. Many older characterizations of platonism add strong epistemological claims to the effect that we have some immediate grasp of, or insight into, the realm of abstract objects. (See e.g., Rees 1967.) But it is essay structure, useful (and nowadays fairly standard) to reserve the term ‘platonism’ for the purely metaphysical view described above. Many philosophers who defend platonism in this purely metaphysical sense would reject the additional epistemological claims. Examples include Quine and other philosophers attracted to the so-called indispensability argument , which seeks to give a broadly empirical defense of mathematical platonism. (See the entry on indispensability arguments in the philosophy of for success essay mathematics.)

Finally, the above definition of ‘mathematical platonism’ excludes the claim that all truths of pure mathematics are necessary, although this claim has traditionally been made by careers that writing creativity most platonists. Again, this exclusion is justified by the fact that some philosophers who are generally regarded as platonists (for instance, Quine and some adherents of the aforementioned indispensability argument) reject this additional modal claim . 1.2 The philosophical significance of mathematical platonism. Mathematical platonism has considerable philosophical significance. If the dress for success, view is true, it will put great pressure on the physicalist idea that reality is exhausted by the physical. For platonism entails that reality extends far beyond the thesis form, physical world and includes objects which aren't part of the causal and spatiotemporal order studied by the physical sciences. Dress Essay! 1 Mathematical platonism, if true, will also put great pressure on many naturalistic theories of knowledge. Thesis Form! For there is little doubt that we possess mathematical knowledge. The truth of dress for success essay mathematical platonism would therefore establish that we have knowledge of abstract (and thus causally inefficacious) objects. This would be an success education important discovery, which many naturalistic theories of knowledge would struggle to dress essay accommodate.

Although these philosophical consequences are not unique to mathematical platonism, this particular form of platonism is unusually well suited to support such consequences. For mathematics is a remarkably successful discipline, both in its own right and as a tool for other sciences. 2 Few contemporary analytic philosophers are willing to contradict any of the core claims of a discipline whose scientific credentials are as strong as those of mathematics (Lewis 1991, pp. After Picking! 579). Dress For Success Essay! So if philosophical analysis revealed mathematics to have some strange and surprising consequences, it would be unattractive simply to reject mathematics. 3 A form of platonism based on chlorine, a discipline whose scientific credentials are less impressive than those of mathematics would not be in this fortunate situation. For instance, if theology turns out to have some strange and surprising philosophical consequences, many philosophers would not hesitate to reject the relevant parts of theology. In contemporary philosophy nominalism is typically defined as the view that there are no abstract objects. (In more traditional philosophical usage the word ‘nominalism’ refers instead to the view that there are no universals. See Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 1325 and the entry on abstract objects.) Let anti-nominalism be the negation of nominalism, that is, the claim that there exist abstract objects. Anti-nominalism about mathematics is thus just the conjunction of dress Existence and success education Abstractness . Essay! Because anti-nominalism leaves out Independence , it is logically weaker than mathematical platonism.

The philosophical consequences of anti-nominalism are not as strong as those of platonism. Many physicalists would accept non-physical objects provided that these are dependent on or reducible to physical objects. They may for careers that involve writing creativity instance accept objects such as corporations, laws, and dress poems, provided that these are suitably dependent or reducible to thesis form physical objects. Moreover, there appears to be no mystery about epistemic access to non-physical objects that we have somehow made or ‘constituted’. If corporations, laws, and poems are made or ‘constituted’ by for success us, presumably we gain knowledge of start them in the process of making or ‘constituting’ them. Some views in the philosophy of dress mathematics are anti-nominalist without being platonist. One example are traditional intuitionist views, which affirm the existence of mathematical objects but maintain that these objects depend on or are constituted by apple picking essay mathematicians and their activities. 4 Some further examples of views that are anti-nominalist without being platonist will be discussed in dress for success essay Section 5.2. Truth-value realism is the view that every well-formed mathematical statement has a unique and objective truth-value that is independent of whether it can be known by us and after picking analysis essay whether it follows logically from our current mathematical theories. The view also holds that most mathematical statements that are deemed to be true are in fact true.

5 Thus truth-value realism is clearly a metaphysical view. But unlike platonism it is not an ontological view. For although truth-value realism claims that mathematical statements have unique and objective truth-values, it is not committed to dress essay the distinctively platonist idea that these truth-values flow from an ontology of mathematical objects. Mathematical platonism clearly motivates truth-value realism by two sided essay structure providing an account of how mathematical statements get their truth-values. But the former view does not entail the latter unless further premises are added. For even if there are mathematical objects, referential and quantificational indeterminacy may deprive mathematical statements of a unique and objective truth-value. Conversely, truth-value realism does not by itself entail Existence and thus implies neither anti-nominalism nor platonism. For there are various accounts of how mathematical statements can come to possess unique and objective truth-values which do not posit a realm of mathematical objects. 6. In fact, many nominalists endorse truth-value realism, at least about more basic branches of mathematics, such as arithmetic. Nominalists of this type are committed to the slightly odd-sounding view that, although the ordinary mathematical statement.

(1) There are primes numbers between 10 and 20. is true, there are in fact no mathematical objects and thus in particular no numbers. But there is no contradiction here. We must distinguish between the language L M in which mathematicians make their claims and the language L P in which nominalists and other philosophers make theirs. For Success Essay! The statement (1) is made in success L M . But the nominalist's assertion that (1) is true but that there are no abstract objects is made in dress essay L P . The nominalist's assertion is thus perfectly coherent provided that (1) is after, translated non-homophonically from L M into dress for success essay L P . And indeed, when the nominalist claims that the truth-values of sentences of L M are fixed in a way which doesn't appeal to mathematical objects, it is precisely this sort of non-homophonic translation she has in mind. The view mentioned in the previous note provides an example. This shows that for the claim Existence to have its intended effect, it must be expressed in the language L P used by us philosophers. If the claim was expressed in the language L M used by mathematicians, then nominalists could accept the claim while still denying that there are mathematical objects, contrary to the purpose of the claim. A small but important tradition of start chlorine philosophers urge that the dress, debate about platonism should be replaced by, or at least transformed into, a debate about truth-value realism. One reason offered in support of this view is careers writing, that the former debate is hopelessly unclear, while the latter is dress for success essay, more tractable (Dummett 1978a, pp. 228232 and essay success Dummett 1991b, pp.

1015). Another reason offered is that the debate about truth-value realism is of greater importance to both philosophy and mathematics than the one about platonism. For Success Essay! 7. 1.5 The mathematical significance of platonism. Working realism is the methodological view that mathematics should be practiced as if platonism was true (Bernays 1935, Shapiro 1997, pp. That Writing Creativity! 2127 and for success 3844). Two Sided Argumentative Essay! This requires some explanation. In debates about the foundations of essay mathematics platonism has often been used to defend certain mathematical methods, such as the following:

Classical first-order (or stronger) languages whose singular terms and quantifiers appear to be referring to and ranging over mathematical objects. (This contrasts with the careers involve creativity, languages that dominated earlier in the history of mathematics, which relied more heavily on constructive and modal vocabulary.) Classical rather than intuitionistic logic. Non-constructive methods (such as non-constructive existence proofs) and non-constructive axioms (such as the Axiom of Choice). Impredicative definitions (that is, definitions that quantify over a totality to dress which the object being defined would belong). ‘Hilbertian optimism’, that is, the belief that every mathematical problem is in principle solvable. 8. According to working realism, these and other classical methods are acceptable and available in all mathematical reasoning. But working realism does not take a stand on whether these methods require any philosophical defense, and if so, whether this defense must be based on platonism. In short, where platonism is an picking analysis explicitly philosophical view, working realism is first and foremost a view within mathematics itself about the correct methodology of this discipline.

Platonism and working realism are therefore distinct views. However, there may of course be logical relations between the two views. Given the origin of working realism, it is not surprising that the view receives strong support from mathematical platonism. Assume that mathematical platonism is dress for success essay, true. Then clearly the language of thesis form mathematics ought to be as described in dress essay (i). Secondly, provided it is legitimate to reason classically about any independently existing part of reality, (ii) would also follow. Jason Resume! Thirdly, since platonism ensures that mathematics is discovered rather than invented, there would be no need for mathematicians to restrict themselves to constructive methods and axioms, which establishes (iii).

Fourth, there is a powerful and influential argument due to Gödel (1944) that impredicative definitions are legitimate whenever the objects being defined exist independently of our definitions. (For instance, ‘the tallest boy in dress for success the class’ appears unproblematic despite being impredicative.) If this is correct, then (iv) would follow. Finally, if mathematics is two sided argumentative essay structure, about some independently existing reality, then every mathematical problem has a unique and determinate answer, which provides at least some motivation for Hilbertian optimism. Dress For Success! (See, however, the discussion of plenitudinous platonism in Section 5.1.) The truth of mathematical platonism would therefore have important consequences within mathematics itself. It would justify the classical methods associated with working realism and encourage the search for after apple analysis essay new axioms to settle questions (such as the dress for success essay, Continuum Hypothesis) which are left open by our current mathematical theories. However, working realism does not in thesis form any obvious way imply platonism. Although working realism says that we are justified in using the for success essay, platonistic language of contemporary mathematics, this falls short of platonism in at least two ways.

As the above discussion of truth-value realism showed, the platonistic language of involve writing creativity mathematics can be analysed in such a way as to avoid reference to and quantification over mathematical objects. Dress! Moreover, even if a face-value analysis of the language of mathematics could be justified, what would follow is anti-nominalism but not yet platonism. An additional argument would be needed for essay the third component of platonism, namely, Independence . The prospects for dress essay such an argument are discussed in picking analysis essay Section 3.2. 2. The Fregean Argument for Existence. We now describe a template of an argument for the existence of mathematical objects. Since the first philosopher who developed an argument of this general form was Frege, it will be referred to as the Fregean argument . Dress! But the template is careers writing, general and abstracts away from most specific aspects of Frege's own defense of the existence of mathematical objects, such as his view that arithmetic is dress, reducible to logic. Fregean logicism is just one way in after apple essay which this template can be developed; some other ways will be mentioned below. The Fregean argument is for success, based on two premises, the first of thesis form which concerns the semantics of the language of mathematics: The singular terms of the language of mathematics purport to refer to mathematical objects, and its first-order quantifiers purport to range over such objects. The word ‘purport’ needs to be explained. When a sentence S purports to for success essay refer or quantify in a certain way, this means that for careers writing creativity S to be true, S must succeed in dress essay referring or quantifying in this way.

The second premise does not require much explanation: Most sentences accepted as mathematical theorems are true (regardless of their syntactic and semantic structure). Consider sentences which are accepted as mathematical theorems and which contain one or more mathematical singular terms. By Truth , most of thesis form these sentences are true. 9 Let S be one such sentence. By Classical Semantics , the truth of S requires that its singular terms succeed in referring to mathematical objects. Hence there must be mathematical objects, as asserted by Existence . 10. Classical Semantics claims that the language of dress for success essay mathematics functions semantically much like language in general functions (or at least has traditionally been assumed to function): the semantic functions of singular terms and quantifiers are, respectively, to refer to objects and to range over involve creativity, objects.

This is a broadly empirical claim about the workings of dress for success a semi-formal language used by the community of professional mathematicians. (In the widely adopted terminology of Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 67, Classical Semantics is a hermeneutic claim; that is, it is chlorine, a descriptive claim about how a certain language is actually used, not a normative claim about how this language ought to be used.) Note also that Classical Semantics is compatible with most traditional views on for success essay, semantics; in particular, it is compatible with all the standard views on the meanings of sentences, namely that they are truth-values, propositions, or sets of possible worlds. Classical Semantics enjoys strong prima facie plausibility. For the language of mathematics strongly appears to have the same semantic structure as ordinary non-mathematical language. As Burgess (1999) observes, the following two sentences appear to have the structure, same simple semantic structure of a predicate being ascribed to a subject (p. 288): (4) Evelyn is prim. Dress! (5) Eleven is prime. This appearance is also borne out by the standard semantic analyses proposed by that involve linguists and semanticists. Classical Semantics has nevertheless been challenged, for instance by for success essay nominalists such as Hellman (1989) and by Hofweber (2005). (See also Moltmann (2013) for some challenges concerned with arithmetical vocabulary in natural language.) This is not the chlorine, place for an extended discussion of such challenges.

Let me just note that a lot of work is needed to substantiate this sort of challenge. The challenger will have to argue that the apparent semantic similarities between mathematical and non-mathematical language are deceptive. And these arguments will have to be of the sort that linguists and semanticistswith no vested interest in the philosophy of mathematicscould come to recognize as significant. 11. Truth can be defended in for success a variety of different ways. Common to all defenses is resume, that they first identify some standard by for success which the truth-values of mathematical statements can be assessed and then argue that mathematical theorems meet this standard.

One option is to careers that creativity appeal to a standard that is more fundamental than that of mathematics itself. For Success! Logicism provides an example. Frege and other logicists first claim that any theorem of pure logic is chlorine, true. Then they attempt to show that the for success essay, theorems of certain branches of mathematics can be proved from pure logic and definitions alone. Another option is to appeal to two sided argumentative essay the standards of empirical science. The Quine-Putnam indispensability argument provides an example.

First it is argued that any indispensable part of empirical science is likely to be true and therefore something we are justified in believing. Dress! Then it is argued that large amounts of mathematics are indispensable to empirical science. If both claims are correct, it follows that Truth is essay success, likely to be true and that belief in Truth therefore is justified. A third option is to appeal to the standards of essay mathematics itself. Thesis Form! Why should one have to appeal to non-mathematical standards, such as those of logic or empirical science, in order to defend the truth of mathematical theorems? When we defend the for success, truth of the claims of careers writing logic and physics, we do not need to appeal to standards outside of respectively logic and physics. Rather we assume that logic and for success essay physics provide their own sui generis standards of essay structure justification. Essay! Why should mathematics be any different? This third strategy has received a lot of argumentative essay structure attention in recent years, often under the heading of ‘naturalism’ or ‘mathematical naturalism’. (See Burgess Rosen 1997, Maddy 1997, and, for critical discussion, see the entry on naturalism in the philosophy of dress mathematics.) Here is an example of how a naturalistic strategy can be developed.

Call the attitude that mathematicians take to the theorems of mathematics ‘acceptance’. Then the following claims seem plausible: (6) Mathematicians are justified in accepting the theorems of involve writing mathematics. (7) Accepting a mathematical statement S involves taking S to be true. (8) When a mathematician accepts a mathematical statement S , the content of this attitude is in general the essay, literal meaning of two sided argumentative structure S . From these three claims it follows that mathematical experts are justified in taking the theorems of mathematics to be literal truths. By extension the dress for success essay, rest of us too are justified in believing Truth . Note that the experts with whom (6) is concerned need not themselves believe (7) and (8), let alone be justified in any such belief. What matters is that the three claims are true. The task of establishing the truth of (7) and essay (8) may fall to linguists, psychologists, sociologists, or philosophers, but certainly not to mathematicians themselves.

2.4 The notion of ontological commitment. Versions of the Fregean argument are sometimes stated in terms of the notion of ontological commitment. For Success Essay! Assume we operate with the standard Quinean criterion of ontological commitment: A first-order sentence (or collection of such sentences) is ontologically committed to such objects as must be assumed to be in the range of the start, variables for the sentence (or collection of dress for success essay sentences) to be true. Then it follows from Classical Semantics that many sentences of essay success education mathematics are ontologically committed to mathematical objects. To see this, consider a typical mathematical theorem S , which involves some normal extensional occurrence of either singular terms or first-order quantifiers. By Classical Semantics , these expressions purport to refer to or range over mathematical objects. For S to be true, these expressions must succeed in doing what they purport to do.

Consequently, for S to be true, there must be mathematical objects in the range of the variables. By Quine's Criterion this means that S is ontologically committed to mathematical objects. Quine and many others take Quine's Criterion to dress for success be little more than a definition of the term ‘ontological commitment’ (Quine 1969 and Burgess 2004). But the criterion has nevertheless been challenged. Some philosophers deny that singular terms and first-order quantifiers automatically give rise to ontological commitments. Perhaps what is “required of the world” for the sentence to be true involves the existence of some but not all of the objects in the range of the after picking essay, quantifiers (Rayo 2008). Or perhaps we should sever the link between the first-order existential quantifier and the notion of ontological commitment (Azzouni 2004 and dress for success Hofweber 2000).

One response to these challenges is to observe that the thesis form, Fregean argument was developed above without any use of the dress essay, term ‘ontological commitment’. Careers That! Any challenge to for success the definition of ‘ontological commitment’ provided by jason toff resume Quine's Criterion therefore appears irrelevant to the version of the Fregean argument developed above. However, this response is unlikely to dress satisfy the challengers, who will respond that the conclusion of the argument developed above is analysis essay, too weak to dress for success essay have its intended effect. Recall that the conclusion, Existence , is formalized in our philosophical meta-language L P as ‘∃ x Mx ’. So this formalization will fail to have its intended effect unless this meta-language sentence is of the sort that incurs ontological commitment. But that is precisely what the challengers dispute. This controversy cannot be pursued further here. For now, we simply observe that the challengers need to provide an account of why their non-standard notion of ontological commitment is thesis form, better and theoretically more interesting than the standard Quinean notion. 3. From Existence to Mathematical Platonism.

Recall that mathematical platonism is the result of adding to Existence the two further claims Abstractness and Independence . By the standards of philosophy, Abstractness has remained relatively uncontroversial. Among the few philosophers to essay have challenged it are Maddy (1990) (concerning impure sets) and Bigelow (1988) (concerning sets and various kinds of numbers). This relative lack of controversy means that few explicit defenses of Abstractness have been developed. But it is success education, not hard to see how such a defense might go. Here is one idea. It is a plausible prima facie constraint on any philosophical interpretation of mathematical practice that it should avoid ascribing to mathematics any features which would render actual mathematical practice misguided or inadequate. This constraint makes it hard to deny that the objects of pure mathematics are abstract.

For if these objects had spatiotemporal locations, then actual mathematical practice would be misguided and inadequate, since pure mathematicians ought then to take an interest in the locations of their objects, just as physicists take an dress interest in the locations of theirs. The fact that pure mathematicians take no interest in this question suggests that their objects are abstract. Independence says that mathematical objects, if there are any, are independent of intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices. This claim has received relatively little explicit attention in recent decades. (Among the jason resume, exceptions are philosophers of intuitionist and constructivist leanings, such as Dummett. See also Cole 2009.) The claim appears to have been tacitly accepted by most analytic philosophers, not always because they are moved by any arguments in essay its favor, but often only because they don't understand what it would be for the claim to fail. Ordinary physical objects provide a good model for what it is for an object to be independent of us and our activities. But it remains unclear what it would be for an object not to be thus independent. However, a failure to see any clear alternatives to a view is not a defense of the view. Can one do better?

One strategy is to search for a route from working realism to Independence . Assume that the methodology of classical mathematics is apple picking essay, justified. Could it be that the best explanation of this fact is that Independence is true? One such argument is suggested by Gödel, who claims that the dress for success, legitimacy of impredicative definitions is start essay, best explained by the truth of for success essay some form of platonism, including something like our claim Independence (Gödel 1944, pp. 455457; see also Bernays 1935 for a related but weaker claim). However, although it is careers that, widely agreed that Independence would support the dress for success essay, legitimacy of two sided essay structure impredicative definitions, it remains an open question whether the converse implication is defensible. Another option is to proceed from the for success essay, methodology of contemporary set theory to Independence (Gödel 1964). Much of the apple, search for new axioms in set theory is today based on so-called “extrinsic justifications”, where candidate axioms are assessed not just for their intrinsic plausibility but also for their capacity to explain and systematize more basic mathematical facts.

Perhaps this methodology can somehow be used to motivate Independence . However, it remains an open question whether this suggestion can be developed into dress for success a convincing argument. Education! (See Maddy 1988 for a discussion of dress essay extrinsic justifications in set theory. See also Parsons 1995 for a discussion of that creativity Gödel's platonism.) 4. Objections to Mathematical Platonism. A variety of objections to mathematical platonism have been developed. Here are the most important ones.

The most influential objection is probably the one inspired by Benacerraf (1973). What follows is an improved version of Benacerraf's objection due to Field (1989). 12 This version relies on dress, the following three premises. If these three premises are correct, it will follow that mathematical platonism undercuts our justification for believing in mathematics. But are the premises correct? The first two premises are relatively uncontroversial. Most platonists are already committed to Premise 1. And Premise 2 seems fairly secure. If the reliability of some belief formation procedure could not even in principle be explained, then the procedure would seem to careers work purely by chance, thus undercutting any justification we have for the beliefs produced in this way. Premise 3 is for success, more controversial.

Field defends this premise by observing that “the truth-values of our mathematical assertions depend on facts involving platonic entities that reside in a realm outside of space-time” (Field 1989, p. 68) and thus are causally isolated from us even in principle. However, this defense assumes that any adequate explanation of the essay, reliability in question must involve some causal correlation. This has been challenged by dress for success a variety of philosophers who have proposed more minimal explanations of the reliability claim. (See Burgess Rosen 1997, pp. 4149 and Lewis 1991, pp. Thesis Form! 111112. See Linnebo 2006 for dress for success essay a critique.) 13. Another famous article by careers that creativity Benacerraf develops a metaphysical objection to mathematical platonism (Benacerraf 1965, Kitcher 1978). Although Benacerraf focuses on arithmetic, the objection naturally generalizes to most pure mathematical objects. Benacerraf opens by defending what is dress essay, now known as a structuralist view of the natural numbers, according to which the natural numbers have no properties other than those they have in virtue of being positions in an ω-sequence. Writing! For instance, there is nothing more to being the number 3 than having certain intrastructurally defined relational properties, such as succeeding 2, being half of 6, and being prime.

No matter how hard we study arithmetic and set theory, we will never know whether 3 is identical with the fourth von Neumann ordinal, or with the corresponding Zermelo ordinal, or perhaps, as Frege suggested, with the class of all three-membered classes (in some system that allows such classes to exist). Benacerraf now draws the following conclusion: Therefore, numbers are not objects at all, because in dress for success giving the properties of numbers you merely characterize an abstract structureand the distinction lies in the fact that the “elements” of the structure have no properties other than those relating them to other “elements” of the argumentative essay structure, same structure. (Benacerraf 1965, p. 291) In other words, Benacerraf claims that there can be no objects which have nothing but structural properties. All objects must have some non-structural properties as well. (See Benacerraf 1996 for some later reflections on this argument.) Both of the steps of Benacerraf's argument are controversial. Dress! The first stepthat natural numbers have only structural propertieshas recently been defended by a variety of thesis form mathematical structuralists (Parsons 1990, Resnik 1997, and dress for success essay Shapiro 1997). But this step is denied by logicists and neo-logicists, who claim that the natural numbers are intrinsically tied to the cardinalities of the collections that they number. And the second stepthat there can be no objects with only structural propertiesis explicitly rejected by all of the structuralists who defend the first step. (For some voices sympathetic to the second step, see Hellman 2001 and MacBride 2005. See also Linnebo 2008 for discussion.)

In addition to Benacerraf's, a variety of metaphysical objections to mathematical platonism have been developed. One of the thesis form, more famous examples is an argument of for success essay Nelson Goodman's against set theory. Goodman (1956) defends the Principle of Nominalism , which states that whenever two entities have the same basic constituents, they are identical. This principle can be regarded as a strengthening of the familiar set theoretic axiom of extensionality. The axiom of extensionality states that if two sets x and start essay chlorine y have the same elementsthat is, if ∀ u ( u ∈ x ↔ u ∈ y )then they are identical. The Principle of dress essay Nominalism is essay chlorine, obtained by replacing the membership relation with its transitive closure. 14 The principle thus states that if x and y are borne ∈* by the same individualsthat is, if ∀ u ( u ∈* x ↔ u ∈* y )then x and y are identical. By endorsing this principle, Goodman disallows the formation of sets and dress essay classes, allowing only the thesis form, formation of mereological sums and the application to the standard mereological operations (as described by his “calculus of individuals”).

However, Goodman's defense of the dress for success, Principle of Nominalism is now widely held to that writing be unconvincing, as witnessed by the widespread acceptance by philosophers and mathematicians of set theory as a legitimate and valuable branch of for success mathematics. Anti-nominalism says there exist abstract mathematical objects, whereas platonism adds Independence , which says that mathematical objects are independent of two sided structure intelligent agents and their language, thought, and practices. Alternatives are available; this final section surveys some lightweight forms of platonism which belong somewhere in the territory between anti-nominalism and full-fledged platonism. One lightweight form of dress for success essay platonism (its name notwithstanding) is the essay structure, “full-blooded platonism” of Balaguer 1998. Essay! This form of chlorine platonism is characterized by a plenitude principle to the effect that any mathematical objects that could exist actually do exist. For instance, since the Continuum Hypothesis is independent of the standard axiomatization of dress for success essay set theory, there is a universe of sets in which the hypothesis is true and involve writing creativity another in which it is false. And neither universe is metaphysically privileged. By contrast, traditional platonism asserts that there is a unique universe of sets in which the Continuum Hypothesis is either determinately true or determinately false. 15. One alleged benefit of this plenitudinous view is in the epistemology of mathematics. If every consistent mathematical theory is true of some universe of essay mathematical objects, then mathematical knowledge will, in some sense, be easy to obtain: provided that our mathematical theories are consistent, they are guaranteed to be true of some universe of mathematical objects.

However, “full-blooded platonism” has received much criticism. Colyvan and careers involve creativity Zalta 1999 criticize it for undermining the possibility of reference to mathematical objects, and Restall 2003, for lacking a precise and coherent formulation of the plenitude principle on which the view is dress for success essay, based. Martin (2001) proposes that different universes of sets be amalgamated to yield a single maximal universe, which will be privileged by fitting our conception of set better than any other universe of sets. A different version of plenitudinous platonism is developed in Linsky Zalta 1995 and a series of further articles. Education! (See, for instance, Linsky Zalta 2006 and other articles cited therein.) Traditional platonism goes wrong by “conceiv[ing] of abstract objects on the model of physical objects” (Linsky Zalta 1995, p. Dress For Success! 533), including in particular the idea that such objects are “sparse” rather than plenitudinous. Linsky Zalta develop an alternative approach on the basis of the second author's “object theory”. The main feature of object theory is essay chlorine, a very general comprehension principle which asserts the existence of a plenitude of dress abstract objects: for any collection of properties, there is an abstract object which “encodes” precisely these properties. In object theory, moreover, two abstract objects are identical just in case they encode precisely the same properties. Object theory's comprehension principle and identity criterion are said to success “provide the link between our cognitive faculty of understanding and for success essay abstract objects” ( ibid ., p. 547). (See Ebert Rossberg 2007 for careers that involve writing creativity critical discussion.) Assume that anti-nominalism is true. For convenience, assume also Classical Semantics . These assumptions ensure that the singular terms and quantifiers of mathematical language refer to and range over abstract objects. Given these assumptions, should one also be a mathematical platonist?

That is, do the objects that mathematical sentences refer to and quantify over satisfy Independence or some similar condition? It will be useful to restate our assumptions in more neutral terms. We can do this by invoking the notion of a semantic value , which plays an important role in semantics and the philosophy of language. In these fields it is widely assumed that each expression makes some definite contribution to the truth-value of essay sentences in which the success education, expression occurs. This contribution is known as the for success essay, semantic value of the expression. It is widely assumed that (at least in extensional contexts) the semantic value of a singular term is just its referent.

Our assumptions can now be stated neutrally as the claim that mathematical singular terms have abstract semantic values and that its quantifiers range over the kinds of item that serve as semantic values. Let's focus on two sided argumentative structure, the claim about singular terms. What is the philosophical significance of this claim? In particular, does it support some version of Independence ? The answer will depend on what is required for a mathematical singular term to dress have a semantic value. Some philosophers argue that not very much is jason, required (Frege 1953, Dummett 1981, Dummett 1991a, Hale Wright 2000, and Wright 1983). It suffices for the term t to make some definite contribution to the truth-values of sentences in which it occurs. The whole purpose of the notion of a semantic value was to represent such contributions.

It therefore suffices for a singular term to possess a semantic value that it makes some such suitable contribution. This may even open the way for essay a kind of reductionism (Dummett 1991a, Linnebo 2012). Although it is perfectly true that the mathematical singular term t has an abstract object as its semantic value, this truth may obtain in virtue of more basic facts which do not mention or involve the relevant abstract object. Compare for apple analysis essay instance the relation of ownership that obtains between a person and essay her bank account. Although it is perfectly true that the person owns the toff, bank account, this truth may obtain in dress for success essay virtue of more basic sociological or psychological facts which do not mention or involve the bank account. If some lightweight account of semantic values is defensible, we can accept the assumptions of toff anti-nominalism and Classical Semantics without committing ourselves to any traditional or robust form of platonism. 5.3 What is for success, mathematical platonism anyway? Do the lightweight forms of platonism deserve to be called ‘platonist’?

Since the views clearly qualify as anti-nominalist, the question is whether they are sufficiently true to the claim Independence . A natural gloss on Independence is the counterfactual conditional that, had there not been any intelligent agents, or had their language, thought, or practices been suitably different, there would still have been mathematical objects. If this is involve writing, all that Independence amounts to, then the lightweight forms of platonism are likely to satisfy the claim and thus qualify as genuinely platonist. But it is doubtful that this gloss is essay, acceptable. For Independence is meant to substantiate an analogy between mathematical objects and ordinary physical objects. Just as electrons and planets exist independently of us, so do numbers and sets. And just as statements about electrons and planets are made true or false by the objects with which they are concerned and these objects' perfectly objective properties, so are statements about numbers and sets. Two Sided Essay! Since the dress essay, lightweight forms of platonism explicitly distance themselves from this analogy, Independence should presumably be glossed in a way that makes it incompatible with the lightweight forms of essay platonism. The problem is the elusive nature of the analogy on which Independence is based.

Until we get a better grip on this analogy, it will remain unclear exactly how platonism is supposed to dress essay go beyond anti-nominalism. Azzouni, Jody, 2004, Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism , Oxford: Oxford University Press. After Apple Picking! Balaguer, Mark, 1998, Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics , Oxford: Oxford University Press. For Success! Balaguer, Mark, 2001, “A theory of mathematical correctness and mathematical truth”, Pacific Philosophical Quarterly , 82: 87114. Benacerraf, Paul, 1965, “What numbers could not be”, Philosophical Review , 74: 4773. Benacerraf, Paul, 1973, “Mathematical Truth”, Journal of Philosophy , 70(19): 661679. Success! Benacerraf, Paul, 1996, “What mathematical truth could not be, i”, in Benacerraf and His Critics , A. Morton and S. Stich, eds., Oxford: Blackwell.

Benacerraf, Paul and Putnam, Hilary (eds.), 1983, Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Second edition. Bernays, Paul, 1935, “On Platonism in Mathematics”, Reprinted in dress Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Bigelow, John, 1988, The Reality of Numbers: A Physicalist's Philosophy of Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Burgess, John P., 1999, “Review of Stewart Shapiro, Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology”, Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic , 40(2): 28391. Careers That Involve Writing! Burgess, John P., 2004, “Review of Jody Azzouni, Deflating Existential Consequence: A Case for Nominalism”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 10(4): 573577. Burgess, John P. and Rosen, Gideon, 1997, A Subject with No Object , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cole, Julian C., 2009, “Creativity, freedom, and dress for success essay authority: A new perspective on jason resume, the metaphysics of mathematics”, Australasian Journal of Philosophy , 87: 589608. Colyvan, Mark and Zalta, Edward N., 1999, “Mathematics: Truth and Fiction?”, Philosophia Mathematica , 7(3): 336349. Dummett, Michael, 1978a, “The philosophical basis of intuitionistic logic”, in Truth and essay Other Enigmas , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 215247.

Reprinted in chlorine Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Dummett, Michael, 1978b, Truth and Other Enigmas , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dummett, Michael, 1981, Frege: Philosophy of Language , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, second ed. Dummett, Michael, 1991a, Frege: Philosophy of dress for success essay Mathematics , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Dummett, Michael, 1991b, The Logical Basis of Metaphysics , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ebert, Philip and Rossberg, Marcus, 2007, “What is the purpose of neo-logicism?”, Travaux de Logique , 18: 3361. Field, Hartry, 1989, Realism, Mathematics, and Modality , Oxford: Blackwell.

Frege, Gottlob, 1953, Foundations of Arithmetic , Oxford: Blackwell. Transl. by argumentative J.L. Austin. Dress! Gaifman, Haim, 1975, “Ontology and Conceptual Frameworks, Part I”, Erkenntnis , 9: 329353. Gödel, Kurt, 1944, “Russell's Mathematical Logic”, In Benacerraf and Putnam (1983).

Gödel, Kurt, 1964, “What is Cantor's Continuum Hypothesis?”, In Benacerraf and Putnam (1983). Essay Success Education! Gödel, Kurt, 1995, “Some basic theorems on dress essay, the foundations of mathematics and their implications”, in Collected Words , S. Careers Creativity! Feferman et al, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol. III, 304323. Goodman, Nelson, 1956, “A World of Individuals”, reprinted. in P. Benacerraf and H. Putnam, eds., Philosophy of Mathematics: Selected Readings, 1st ed., Prentice-Hall. Hale, Bob, 1987, Abstract Objects , Oxford: Blackwell. Hale, Bob and Wright, Crispin, 2000, “Implicit Definition and the A Priori”, in New Essays on the A Priori , Paul Boghossian and Christopher Peacocke, eds., Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reprinted in Hale and essay Wright (2001).

Hale, Bob and writing Wright, Crispin, 2001, Reason's Proper Study , Oxford: Clarendon. Hellman, Geoffrey, 1989, Mathematics without Numbers , Oxford: Clarendon. Hellman, Geoffrey, 2001, “Three Varieties of Mathematical Structuralism”, Philosophia Mathematica , 9(3): 184211. Hilbert, David, 1996, “Mathematical problems”, in From Kant to Hilbert , William Ewald, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, vol. 2, 10961105. Hofweber, Thomas, 2000, “Quantification and non-existent objects”, in Empty Names, Fiction and the Puzzle of Non-Existence , Anthony Everett and Thomas Hofweber, eds., Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 24973. Hofweber, Thomas, 2005, “Number determiners, numbers, and arithmetic”, Philosophical Review , 114(2): 179225. Isaacson, Daniel, 1994, “Mathematical intuition and objectivity”, in Mathematics and Mind , Alexander George, ed., Oxford: Oxford University Press, chap. 5. Kitcher, Philip, 1978, “The plight of the platonist”, Noûs , 12: 119136. Kreisel, Georg, 1958, “Review of dress Wittgenstein's remarks on the foundations of mathematics”, British Journal for the Philosophy of Science , 9: 135158. Lewis, David, 1991, Parts of Classes , Oxford: Blackwell.

Linnebo, Øystein, 2006, “Epistemological challenges to thesis form mathematical platonism”, Philosophical Studies , 129(3): 545574. Linnebo, Øystein, 2008, “Structuralism and the notion of dependence”, Philosophical Quarterly , 58: 5979. Linnebo, Øystein, 2012, “Reference by abstraction”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 112: 4571. Linsky, Bernard and Zalta, Edward N., 1995, “Naturalized platonism versus platonized naturalism”, Journal of Philosophy , 92(10): 525555. Linsky, Bernard and dress essay Zalta, Edward N., 2006, “What is neologicism?”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 12(1): 6099. Argumentative Essay Structure! MacBride, Fraser, 2005, “Structuralism Reconsidered”, in Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic , Stewart Shapiro, ed., Oxford: Clarendon, 563589.

Maddy, Penelope, 1988, “Believing the dress, axioms, i and involve creativity ii”, Journal of Symbolic Logic , 53: 481511 and dress for success 736764. Maddy, Penelope, 1990, Realism in Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Maddy, Penelope, 1997, Naturalism in Mathematics , Oxford: Clarendon. Martin, Donald A., 2001, “Multiple universes of sets and indeterminate truth values”, Topoi , 20(1): 516. Moltmann, Friederike, 2013, “Reference to two sided essay numbers in natural language”, Philosophical Studies , 162: 499536. Parsons, Charles, 1980, “Mathematical Intuition”, Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society , 80: 14568. Dress Essay! Parsons, Charles, 1983, Mathematics in Philosophy , Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Parsons, Charles, 1990, “The Structuralist View of Mathematical Objects”, Synthese , 84: 303346. Parsons, Charles, 1995, “Platonism and mathematical intuition in Kurt Gödel's thought”, Bulletin of Symbolic Logic , 1(1): 4474. Start! Quine, W.V., 1969, “Existence and quantification”, in Ontological Relativity and Other Essays , New York: Columbia University Press, 91113. Rayo, Agustín, 2008, “On specifying truth-conditions”, Philosophical Review , 117(3): 385443. Rees, D.A., 1967, “Platonism and the platonic tradition”, in for success essay The Encyclopedia of Philosophy , Paul Edwards, ed., New York: Macmillan, vol. 5, 333341.

Resnik, Michael, 1980, Frege and the Philosophy of Mathematics , Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Resnik, Michael, 1997, Mathematics as a Science of essay education Patterns , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Restall, Greg, 2003, “Just what Is full-blooded platonism?”, Philosophia Mathematica , 11(1): 8291. Dress Essay! Shapiro, Stewart, 1997, Philosophy of Mathematics: Structure and Ontology , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wright, Crispin, 1983, Frege's Conception of Numbers as Objects , Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press. Wright, Crispin, 1992, Truth and Objectivity , Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[Please contact the author with suggestions.] Thanks to Philip Ebert, Leon Horsten, James Ladyman, Hannes Leitgeb, David Liggins, Alexander Paseau, and Philip Welch for comments and thesis form discussion. Thanks also to an audience at the ECAP6 in Krakow, where parts of this material were presented. Dress For Success Essay! This article was written during a period of leave funded by essay success an AHRC Research Leave Grant (number AH/E003753/1). I gratefully acknowledge their support. The Encyclopedia Now Needs Your Support. Please Read How You Can Help Keep the Encyclopedia Free.

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Amy Tan and Richard Rodgriguez Essay Sample. Dress For Success Essay. Language is the system of words or signs that people use to express thoughts and careers that involve writing creativity, feelings to each other. Language has an impulse on a person that allows them to make ties with a certain society, thus giving them a cultural identification. Dress For Success. When residents of another country come to America and speak a contrasting language to English, immigrants most likely feel uneasy having to adapt to a completely new culture and learn the English language. During this journey, the individuals’ cultural identities might fade away as well as losing their efficient fluency on their native language. In Amy Tan’s, “Mother Tongue” and essay, Richard Rodriguez “Aria: A Memoir of A Bilingual Childhood”, both authors experience the for success, difficulties of language barrier and adjusting to a different lifestyle in order to develop as an thesis form, individual in the United States. Having a cultural identity can cause the public to view you as “different.” Due to this matter, the “normal” individuals will try to avoid any interaction with you. This is one of the obstacles immigrants have to essay, face when adapting to start essay chlorine, the American culture.

In the dress, essay, “Aria: Memoir of a bilingual Childhood” written by Richard Rodriguez, Rodriguez experienced the struggles of being a bilingual Hispanic being raised in the American society. Rodriguez’s family was considered as “foreigners on the block” and sometimes the neighbors would make them feel unwelcomed. For this reason, Rodriguez felt intimidated and felt the need to leave behind his Hispanic culture. He allows the writing creativity, reader to see his change from standing out to dress essay, fitting in, from speaking his “intimate” language – Spanish to speaking English and transitioning into the American culture. Rodriguez accentuates you must be fluent in essay education a public language in order to “belong” and be able to essay, take in “social or political advantages” in able to amass a “public language.” Rodriguez continues to affirm that, “The social and political advantages I enjoy as a man result from the day that I came to believe that my name is indeed “Rich-head Road-ree-guess.” Rodriguez pleas that the public language, which for this situation is English, will provide better opportunities for those who are able speak the “public language.” For Rodriguez the “public language” exposed him to greater opportunities that he would not be have been able to have access to thesis form, if he did learn the English language. In an admirable essay that describes language deeper than just words, accent marks, punctuation, and letters, but to show us depth of a persons worth. Amy Tan discusses “limited” or “broken” English – a language she uses with her Chinese immigrant mother who isn’t fluent with the English language.

The language that Tan describes as “limited” is very personal to her. In the essay, Tan says, “It#8217;s my mother tongue. Her language, as I hear it, is vivid, direct, full of essay, observation and toff resume, imagery. That was the language that helped shape the way I saw things, expressed things, made sense of the world.” Tan tries to show us that her mothers “limited” or “broken” English is equivalent to for success, the “right” English, but it shaped her into the person that she is today. Essay Chlorine. In Tan’s text, she suggests that our first or main language that we learned has an effect on how an individual will look from the outside looking in. Dress Essay. The spoken communication we use plays a major role on the person we develop into and how different our perspective can be for certain situations – our personal individuality is linked to our language.

Tan shows the readers that immigrants like her mothers who are not fluent in argumentative English tend to for success essay, be discriminated for the lack of jason resume, “intelligence” they have due to them being from dress essay a different country. For this situation, their public image is chlorine perceived to others as unintelligent – which is dress for success often incorrect. Tan shares personal experiences about thesis form, how her mother was treated. “People in department stores, at banks, and at restaurants did not take her seriously, did not give her good service, pretended to not to for success essay, understand her, or even acted as if they did not hear her.” There was also a situation where an essay, arrogant hospital staff claimed they lost her test results and denied her requests. She was treated in a disrespectful manner due to the fact that she spoke “broken” English. Dress Essay. When Tan demanded her mothers test results speaking her “correct” English, the hospital staff apologized and fulfilled her mothers requests.

This shows the power of language, one can be identified as an odd one out, and chlorine, often unreasonably treated as an inferior. I am not an immigrant, but from personal experience my parents were once “aliens” to this country. After 20 years, they still sometimes struggle trying to dress essay, understand the jason, American culture. Essay. I remember when I was younger, also like Tan, I’d be embarrassed hearing my mother speak on the phone with a representative trying to pay a light bill, or hearing my father talk to the cashier at a grocery store. But as I grew older, I am finally realizing to embrace my culture. I love being able to speak and fully understand two complete different languages. I realized this is who I am, this is where I come from, and this language shaped me into the person that I am today. Both Rodriguez and Tan express that they and their families over came a battle with being immigrants and entering into the United States.

Language is the careers that creativity, system of communication used by for success essay a particular community or country. It is also crucial aspect to our public identities. The two authors taught us to never forget and embrace our cultural identities. Essay. Tan, Amy. #8220;Mother Tongue#8221;#8221; English 1301 Course Site, n.d. Web.

09 Oct. For Success. 2014. Rodriguez, Richard. #8220;Aria: A Memoir of a Bilingual Childhood.#8221; English 1301 Course Site, n.d. Web. 09 Oct. 2014. Is this the two sided argumentative structure, perfect essay for you?

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