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Biographical Sources in the Sciences -- Life, Earth and horace body among the nacirema essay Physical Science (1989-2006) William Henry Jackson, 1843-1942. His pioneering photography for the U.S. Geological Survey helped convince Congress to preserve many treasures of the western U.S. as national Parks. From the cover letter for a, National Park Service Web site. This guide offers a systematic approach to the wide variety of published biographical information on men and women of miner among the nacirema essay, science in the life, earth and physical sciences, primarily from 1989 to 2006, and complements TB88-3 (Biographical Sources in the Sciences , compiled 1988) and careers that involve TB06-7 (Biographical Sources in the Sciences -- General Works and National Sources , compiled 2006). Works previously listed in TB88-3 have not been retained, but older works which did not make it into the previous bibliography have been included.

Both historical and contemporary scientists are covered, with emphasis on Americans. As in TB88-3 , bibliographic citations include the indication of illustrations, particularly portraits, and the inclusion of preliminary pagination extending to more than 13 pages and unnumbered as well as numbered series notes. Departing from the usual Tracer Bullet format, where one subject is treated per publication, Biographical Resources in ritual among the Sciences instead is thesis form, being issued in three parts, General Works and National Sources; Life, Earth and miner body ritual among the nacirema essay Physical Sciences (1989-2006) ; and involve writing Technology and Computer Sciences (1989-2006) . Each Tracer Bullet contains an body ritual introduction to body ritual essay the topic that includes basic works on biography and a general listing of horace miner body among essay, subject headings. This part, TB06-4 includes Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine Conservation; Astronomy; Biological Sciences; Chemistry; Geology, Mineralogy, Paleontology; Mathematics; Medical Sciences; Physics; Abstracting and Indexing Services; Journals; and Selected Internet Resources. On Searching for Biographical Information. Essay. In seeking biographical information about scientists, one is horace body the nacirema essay, apt to encounter contrary difficulties, most easily described as feast or famine. Dozens of book-length biographies may be available for the great figures, such as Newton or Darwin, while little or nothing is ready to hand for less well known or obscure individuals. A few suggestions may be in cover for a application order for miner body essay searchers confronted with the latter situation.

Look for journal articles; nowadays, authors' affiliations are usually given, and these can provide a useful starting point. Thesis Form. Check membership directories of societies in the scientist's field where varying amounts of miner body ritual the nacirema, biographical information can often be found--at the very least, an address. If the individual is no longer living, a death date will facilitate the search for newspaper obituaries. If only the year of death is known, an two sided structure obituary may be found by browsing journals and/or society newsletters in the scientist's field. The organization or institution that last employed the scientist may be able to offer advice or assistance. If the location of the person's home at the time of death is horace miner, known, consider addressing a query to the local library. Many libraries keep clipping files devoted to noteworthy local residents, and may even be able to supply addresses of surviving family members. Published genealogies and local histories can be consulted as well. If the scientist's educational background is known, examination of college and university alumni magazines may produce information; if these are not readily available, one can try contacting the horace body ritual among the nacirema essay, institution's alumni office.

Subject headings used by the Library of Congress, under which biographical materials on scientists and engineers can be located in most card, book, and online catalogs, include the following: See also subdivision BIOGRAPHY under groups of horace among, scientists, e.g., African American Mathematicians; African American Scientists; Women Astronomers; Women Scientists; Scientists with Disabilities; Jewish scientists; Catholic scientists; Muslim scientists. See also subdivisions for letter phd position other countries or geographic areas, e.g., Scientists--China--Biography; ScientistsIndia--Biography; ScientistsEurope--Biography; ScientistsLatin America--Biography. See also subdivision BIOGRAPHY under other scientific disciplines, e.g., AERONAUTICS; ELECTRONIC DATA PROCESSING; PHOTOGRAPHY. Note: these headings are used for collective biography only. See also subdivision BIO-BIBLIOGRAPHY under other scientific disciplines, e.g., GEOLOGY; MEDICINE; SCIENCE. See also other occupational subject headings, with or without geographic area subdivisions, e.g., ANATOMISTS; ASTRONOMERS; BIOCHEMISTS; BIOLOGISTS; BOTANISTS; CHEMISTS; COMPUTER ENGINEERS; CONSERVATIONISTS; EARTH SCIENTISTS; ECOLOGISTS; ENGINEERS; ENTOMOLOGISTS; GEOLOGISTS; INVENTORS; INDUSTRIALISTS; MALACOLOGISTS; MATHEMATICIANS; METEOROLOGISTS; MICROBIOLOGISTS; MINERALOGISTS; MOLECULAR BIOLOGISTS; MYCOLOGISTS; NATURALISTS; OCEANOGRAPHERS; ORNITHOLOGISTS; PALEONTOLOGISTS; PHYSICIANS; PHYSICISTS; PLANT COLLECTORS; PSYCHIATRISTS; PSYCHOLOGISTS; TECHNOLOGISTS; VETERINARIANS. SCIENTISTS--ANECDOTES, FACETIAE, SATIRE, ETC. SCIENTISTS--CORRESPONDENCE, REMINISCENCES, ETC. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among Essay. See also subdivisions ANECDOTES; ANECDOTES, FACETIAE, SATIRE, ETC.; CORRESPONDENCE; CORRESPONDENCE, REMINISCENCES, ETC.; INTERVIEWS; and PORTRAITS under groups of scientists, e.g., ENGINEERS; PHYSICISTS; TECHNOLOGISTS, with or without geographic area subdivisions.

AGRICULTURE, VETERINARY MEDICINE, CONSERVATION. Horace Body Essay. Agricultural veterinary sciences international who's who. 5TH ed. Harlow, Essex, UK, Longman Group; New York, Stockton Press, 1994. 1157p. S415.W45 1994 SciRR Desk . contains details of over 10,800 senior agricultural and veterinary scientists concerned with research from 132 countries.

A country and miner ritual the nacirema essay subject index (p. 1125-1157) lists names under professional fields for each of the body the nacirema essay, countries included. Axelrod, Alan, and Charles Phillips. The environmentalists: a biographical dictionary from the 17th century to the present. New York, Facts on body ritual among the nacirema File, 1993. Essay Success Education. xiv, 258 p. Ritual Among The Nacirema. illus., ports. Includes bibliographical references. Treats organizations as well as individuals. S926.A2A94 1993 SciRR Becher, Anne, and others.

American environmental leaders: from colonial times to the present. Santa Barbara, CA, ABC-CLIO, 2000. 2 v. (xviii, 921 p.) illus. Includes bibliographical references. GE55.B43 2000 SciRR Biographical dictionary of horace ritual among the nacirema, American and horace body ritual Canadian naturalists and letter for a application environmentalists . Body. Edited by Keir B. Sterling and others.

Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1997. xix, 937 p. Bibliography: p. Horace Miner The Nacirema Essay. 881-890. QH26.B535 1997 SciRR Braun, Elisabeth. Portraits in horace body ritual among the nacirema essay conservation, Eastern and Southern Africa. Golden, CO, North American Press, 1995. xxxiii, 268 p. Miner Body Ritual Essay. illus., maps, ports. Bibliography: p. 257-262.

Each conservationist is striving to horace body among find a balanced and interactive relationship among people, wildlife, and the environment. Success Education. Breton, Mary Joy. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. Women pioneers for the environment. Boston, Northeastern University Press, 1998. Thesis Form. xiv, 322 p. Horace Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. illus. Bibliography: p. Careers That Writing. 305-309. GE55.B74 1998 SciRR Drum, Sue, and H. Ellen Whiteley. Women in veterinary medicine: profiles of success. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1991. xv, 270 p. ports. Body Ritual Among. Biographies of 20 women. Environmental activists.

Edited by writing John Mongillo and Bibi Booth. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2001. 356 p. illus. Includes bibliographical references. GE55.E57 2000 SciRR Holmes, Madelyn. American women conservationists: twelve profiles. Jefferson, NC, McFarland, 2004.

202 p. illus. List of published writings of twelve women conservationists,#8221; p. 191-197. Mary Austin -- Florence Merriam Bailey -- Rosalie Edge -- Marjory Stoneman Douglas -- Helen Nearing -- Rachel Carson -- Contemporary women conservationists : Faith McNulty, Ann Zwinger, Sue Hubbell, Anne Labastille, Mollie Beattie, and Terry Tempest Williams -- Conclusion, ideas for horace the nacirema our time. Marczakiewicz, August, and Jan Stepinski. Slownik biograficzny dzialaczy kólek rolniczych . Warszawa, Krajowy Zwiazek Rolników, Kólek i Organizacji Rolniczych, Komisja Historyczna, 1992. Thesis Form. 157 p. ports. Muhm, Don, and Virginia Wadsley. Iowans who made a difference: 150 years of agricultural progress. West Des Moines, Iowa Farm Bureau Federation, 1996. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema. xvi, 367 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 361-367.

Our history of women in veterinary medicine: gumption, grace, grit, and miner body among the nacirema essay good humor. By the Association for horace miner body ritual Women Veterinarians; compiled and edited by Phyllis Hickney Larsen. Littleton, CO, The Association, 1997. 115 p. illus. Bibliography: p. 105-109.

The Prairie practitioners: 20th century South Dakota veterinarians. Involve Creativity. Compiled and horace miner body ritual the nacirema essay edited by Thomas B. Ludgate and Janice Ludgate Kitzler. Freeman, SD, Pine Hill Press, 1996. 288 p. illus. Scheuering, Rachel White. Shapers of the great debate on conservation: a biographical dictionary. Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 2004. xxviii, 312 p. (Shapers of the great American debates) Bibliography: p. 305-306. Stalheim, Ole H. V. Veterinary conversations with mid-twentieth century leaders. Two Sided Argumentative Essay. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 1996. xxvi, 302 p. Among. illus., ports. Bibliographic Essay: p. 299-302.

Interviews with 28 innovators who led parts of the prodigious expansion of veterinary medicine in letter phd position application the 20th century. Who's who of the environment. In The Environment encyclopedia and directory. 4th ed. London, Europa Publications Limited, 2005. p. 499-599.

GE10.E57 2005 SciRR World who is who and body ritual among the nacirema essay does what in environment conservation. Birds Report. Edited by Nicholas Polunin; compiled by Lynn M. Curme. New York, St. Martin's Press; Geneva, Foundation for Environmental Conservation, 1997. 592 p.

Supplementing the miner body among, biographies is an appendix providing names and brief information arranged by argumentative essay structure country, and another with listings of miner body ritual the nacirema, names under very narrow specialties. GE55.W67 1997 SciRR Bhathal, R. S. Australian astronomers: achievements at the frontiers of essay success education, astronomy. Canberra, National Library of Australia, 1996. 236 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 229-232. Interviews with 18 astronomers. Bònoli, Fabrizio, and Daniela Piliarvu. I lettori di astronomia presso lo studio di Bologna dal XII al XX secolo.

Bologna, CLUEB, 2001. 282 p. illus. (Musei e archivi dello Studio bolognese, 7) Bibliography: p. 267-272. Brüggenthies, Wilhelm, and Wolfgang R. Dick. Biographischer Index der Astronomie. Horace Miner Body Among Essay. Frankfurt am Main, H. Deutsch, 2005. 481 p. (Acta historica astronomiae, v. Thesis Form. 26) Alternative title: Biographical index of astronomy. Cocks, Elijah E., and Josiah C. Cocks. Who's who on the moon: a biographical dictionary of lunar nomenclature. Greensboro, NC, Tudor Publishers, 1995.

600 p. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema. 8 p. of plates. illus. Works consulted: p. 593-600. The appendix provides lists of women honorees, names of honorees arranged by profession and by country of origin, and lunar features by location and by size. QB600.5.C63 1995 SciRR DeVorkin, David H. Biographical, autobiographical and collected works. Involve Creativity. In his The history of modern astronomy and astrophysics: a selected, annotated bibliography.

New York, Garland Pub., 1982. p. 347-395. illus. Horace Ritual Among. (Bibliographies of the history of science and technology, v. 1) (Garland reference library of the humanities, v. 304) Z5154.H57D48 1982 SciRR Krishnamurthi, K. Success Education. R. Horace Among. Indian astronomers. General editor, N. Mahalingam. Madras, International Society for that writing creativity the Investigation of Ancient Civilizations, 1991. 213 p. Short sketches of ancient Hindu astronomers. Levy, David H., and Wendee Wallach-Levy. Cosmic discoveries: the wonders of horace miner ritual, astronomy. Amherst, NY, Prometheus Books, 2001. 232 p. Thesis Form. illus. (some col.) Bibliography: p. 211-223. Masevich, Alla G., and Aleksandra K. Terent'eva.

Zhenshchiny astronomy. In Na rubezhakh poznaniia? Vselennoi. Istoriko-astronomicheskie issledovaniia . vyp. 23, 1991. Otv. redaktor, A. A. Gurshtein. Moskva, Nauka, 1992. p. 90-111. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema. ports. Bibliography: p. Thesis Form. 111. Biographical sketches and portraits of 26 Russian women astronomers.

McCutcheon, Scott, and Bobbi McCutcheon. Space and horace among astronomy: the careers that writing creativity, people behind the science. Chelsea House, New York, 2006. Horace Miner Ritual Among. xvi, 192 p. illus. For A Phd Position. (Pioneers in science) Includes bibliographical references. QB35.M224 2006 SciRR Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério de Freitas. Astronomia na época dos descobrimentos: a importância dos árabes e dos judeus nas descobertas. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Lacerda Editores, 2000. 486 p. illus. Bibliography: p. 480-486. Appends an encyclopedic dictionary.

Schmidt, Hans. Astronomen der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn: ihr Leben und Werk, 1819-1966. Bonn, Bouvier, 1990. 183 p. illus., ports. (Academica Bonnensia, Bd. 9) Bibliography: p. 163-170.

Turner, Gerard L'Estrange. Renaissance astrolabes and their makers. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema. Aldershot, Hampshire, UK, Burlington, VT, Ashgate/Variorum, 2003. 1 v. (various pagings) illus. (Variorum collected studies series, 766) Includes bibliographical references. Winterburn, Emily. The astronomers Royal.

Greenwich, London, National Maritime Museum, Royal Observatory Greenwich, 2003. 64 p. illus. (some col.) American nature writers. John Elder, editor. New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1996. 2 v. (xxiii, 1210 p.) illus., ports. Bibliographies cite not only birds each writer's publications but also biographical and critical studies. PS163.A6 1996 SciRR American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. Membership handbook and directory , 2000-2001. Washington, American Society of horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay, Limnology and Oceanography, 2001.

1 v. Supplement to Limnology and oceanography , v. Two Sided Argumentative Structure. 46, no. 2, 2001. Beidleman, Richard G. California's frontier naturalists . Berkeley, University of California Press, 2006. xv, 484 p. illus., maps. Bibliography: p. 441-463. Bonta, Marcia. Women in the field: America's pioneering women naturalists. College Station, Texas A M University Press, 1991. Horace The Nacirema. xix, 299 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. 273-287.

QH26.B66 1991 SciRR Boreiko, V. Letter Phd Position. IE. Slovar' deiatelei okhrany prirody . Izd. 2-e, dop. Kiev, Kievskii ekologokul'turnyi tsentr, TSentr Okhrany Dikoi prirody, 2001. 521 p. ports. (Seriia Istoriia okhrany prirody, vyp. 24) Includes bibliographical references. Enlarged ed. of: Populiarnyi biografo-bibliograficheskii slovar'-spravochnik deiatelei zapovednogo dela i okhrany prirody Ukrainy, tsarskoi Rossii i SSSR, 1860-1960 . 1995. (2 v.) Bridson, Gavin D. R. Biographies of naturalists. In his The history of natural history, an annotated bibliography. New York, Garland Pub., 1994. p. 20-154. (Garland reference library of the humanities, v. Body The Nacirema. 991) (Bibliographies on the history of science and technology, v. Argumentative Essay. 24) Contents Section Ba: Collected biographies. Naturalists; Botanists ( plant collectors); Zoologists ( anatomists); Artists ( illustrators); Portraiture--Individual biographies ( bibliographies). Horace The Nacirema Essay. Z7405.H6B75 1994 SciRR Campbell-Culver, Maggie.

The origin of plants: the people and plants that have shaped Britain's garden history since the year 1000. Birds Book. London, Headline, 2001. 260 p. col. illus. Bibliography: p. 249. Carty, Winthrop P., and Elizabeth Lee.

The rhino man and other uncommon environmentalists. Washington, Seven Locks Press, 1992. 177 p. illus., ports. Bibliography: p. Body Ritual. 175-176. Catalogue of portraits of naturalists, mostly botanists, in the collections of the Hunt Institute, the Linnean Society of London, and the Conservatoire et jardin botaniques de la ville de Genève . Compiled by Michael T. Stieber, and others. Pittsburgh, Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation, Carnegie Mellon University, 1987+. 3 v. Contents: pt. 1. Group portraits.--pt.

2. Portraits of individuals, A-D.--pt. 3. Portraits of individuals, E-H. Pt. 3 compiled by Anita L. Karg and others. Charton, Barbara. A to Z of marine scientists. New York, Facts on essay success education File, 2003. Miner Ritual. 230 p. illus., ports. (Notable scientists) (Facts on File science library) Bibliography: p. 207-209.

GC9.C48 2003 SciRR Colmeiro, Miguel. La botánica y los botánicos de la península hispano-lusitana: estudios bibliográficos y biográficos . Madrid, Ollero Ramos, 2000. 216 p. (Colección Reprint) Originally published: Madrid, M. Rivadeneyra, 1858. Cullen, Katherine E. Marine science: the miner body among the nacirema essay, people behind the science . New York, Chelsea House, 2006. xviii, 174 p. illus., maps. (Pioneers in science) Bibliography: p. 165-170. Dayrat, Benoît.

Les botanistes et la flore de France: trois siècles de découvertes. Paris, Publications scientifiques du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, 2003. 690 p. illus. (some col.) (Archives (Muséum national d#8217;histoire naturelle (France))) Bibliography: p. Miner Body Among The Nacirema Essay. 615-618. Thesis Form. Dalil ulama al-bihar wa-marakiz al-biah al-bariyah bi-al-dwal al-arabiyah = Directory of marine scientists and horace miner ritual the nacirema marine environmental centres in the Arab states = Répertoire des océanographes et des centres d'étude du milieu marin dans les etats arabes. Essay Structure. Selim Morcos and Mahmoud Kh. El-Sayed, editors. Nairobi, Kenya, Oceans and Coastal Areas Programme Activity Centre, United Nations Environment Programme, 1990.

213 p. (Regional seas. Horace Miner Body Ritual. Directories and bibliographies, no. 34) Desmond, Ray. Dictionary of British and Irish botanists and horticulturists: including plant collectors, flower painters and garden designers . Rev. and completely updated ed. London, Taylor Francis and the Natural History Museum, 1994. xl, 825 p. Bibliography of letter phd position application, works consulted: p. xxi-xxxviii. A subject index is divided into three sections: Professions, etc., Plants, and Countries, etc. QK26.D47 1994 SciRR Directory of marine and freshwater scientists in Canada. Prepared by Secretariat, Canadian Committee on Oceanography. = Répertoire des experts des sciences de la mer et des eaux douces au Canada. Preparé par le Sécretariat, Comité canadien d'océanographie. Ottawa, Fisheries and Oceans, Scientific Information and Publications Branch = Pêches et océans, Direction de l'information et des publications scientifiques, 1989.

408 p. Evans, Howard Ensign. Pioneer naturalists: the discovery and naming of North American plants and animals. New York, H. Holt, 1993. 294 p. illus. Bibliography: p. 275-282. Horace Body Ritual Among Essay. Includes a chapter on Women in natural history of the nineteenth and that writing early twentieth centuries (p. 252-258) and a chronology, arranged by year of birth, of the naturalists discussed (p. 271-274). QH26.E77 1993 SciRR Fishman, Gail. Journeys through paradise: pioneering naturalists in horace miner body the Southeast. Gainesville, University Press of Florida, 2000. xv, 306 p. illus., maps.

Bibliography: p. 291-297. America, History and Life (1964- ) Z1236.A48, Z1236.A484, Z1236.A485, Z1236.A486, Z1236.A488 and Z1236.A487 MRR Alc and Electronic Format. Applied Science Technology Index (1913- ) Z7913.I7 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. Astronomy and thesis form Astrophysics Abstracts (1969- ) Z5153.A862 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. Bibliography and Index of Geology (1933- ) Z6031.G4 SciRRgt and the nacirema Electronic Format. Bibliography of Agriculture (1942- ) Z5073.U572 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. Biography and Genealogy Master Index (1975- ) Z5305.U5B57 MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format. Biography Index (1946- ) Z5301.B5 MRR Biog BRS Biog and Electronic format.

Biological Abstracts (1926- ) QH301.B37 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. Biological and Agricultural Index (1916- ) Z5073.A46 SciRR AI and careers that writing creativity Electronic Format. Chemical Abstracts (1907- ) Current Biography (1940- ) CT100.C8 MRR BiogBRS Biog and Electronic Format. Engineering Index (1884- ) Z5851.E62 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. General Science Index (1978- ) Z7401.G46 and Electronic Format. Historical Abstracts (1955- ) D299.H5, D299.H512, and D299.H513 MRR and Electronic Format. Mathematical Reviews (1940- ) QA1.M76 SciRR AI and Electronic Format. Horace Among Essay. New York Times Index (1913- ) AI21.N44 and AI21.N45 MRR Physics Abstracts (1898- ) Q1.S3 SciRR and birds QC1.P46 SciRR and horace miner body the nacirema essay Electronic Format. Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature (1900- ) AI3.R48 BRS and Electronic Format. Wellcome Bibliography for the History of Medicine (2000- ) Continues Current Work in the History of Medicine (1954-1999) R131.A1C8.

The following electronic resources may only be available at a large public or academic library. The Library of Congress has subscriptions to horace miner body essay these resources which are available to on-site researchers at the Library of Congress. Horace Miner Among Essay. Some titles may be available exclusively in electronic format, while others have components which are represented in book or microfiche formats. Consult a reference librarian for the location and success format of abstracting and indexing services in the Science Reading Room. African American Biographical Database. Includes Chadwyck-Healey's Black Biographical Dictionaries 1790-1950, obituary files, slave narrative collections, photographs, illustrations, and other sources. American National Biography. CT213.A68 1999 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Portraits of more than 17,4000 men and women from all areas and walks of life whose lives have shaped the nation. Biography Resource Center.

Database of biographical information on more than 150,000 individuals from all parts of the world. The information is taken from body ritual among essay standard biographical resources, many of careers that involve writing creativity, which are also available in print format in the Library. Chambers Reference Online. CT103.C4 MRR Biog and Electronic format. Contains Chambers Biographical Dictionary (1997 ed. with amendments) Elektronische Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (E-ADB and E-NDB) is a database for German biographies. JSTOR Arts Sciences I, II III, and Health General Science. JSTOR is horace miner body ritual among essay, a collection of full-text, keyword-searchable academic journals dating back to the late 17th century.

Oxford Dictionary of two sided structure, National Biography. DA28.O95 2004 MRR Biog and Electronic format. An illustrated collection of 50,000 specially written biographies of the men and women who shaped Britain's past. Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay. Proquest Historical Newspapers. World Biographical Information System. Current component indexes and archives include the following, with more added yearly: American Biographical Archive (ABA Series I and II); Biographical Archive (ABEP Series I and II); Biographical Archive of the Benelux Countries/Archives biographiques des pays du Benelux (BAB I); British Biographical Archive (BBA Series I and II); Archives biographiques françaises /French Biographical Archive (ABF Series I and II); Deutsches biographisches Archiv /German Biographical Archive (DBA Series I and II); Archivio biografico italiano/Italian Biographical Archive (ABI Series I and II); Russisches biographisches Archiv/Russian Biographical Archive (RBA); Scandinavian Biographical Archive (SBA I); and thesis form Archivo biográfico de España, Portugal e Iberoamérica/Spanish, Portuguese and Latin-American Archive (ABEP Series I and miner essay II). Careers That Involve Writing. Component sources include Debrett's Peerage and Baronetage, Debrett's People of Today, Macmillan Dictionary of Women's Biography, Penguin Biographical Dictionary of Women, Who's Who 2003, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Who's Who in Christianity, Who's Who in Gay and Lesbian History, and Who's Who in body ritual among The Roman World. The Thorn Book. Journals that often contain biographical articles on scientists, or bibliographic listings of relevant books and articles, include: The Internet offers a growing number of sources that provide information on scientists in body ritual the nacirema virtually every scientific discipline. Use your favorite search engine and the name of the success education, individual or terms such as those provided in the section on horace body ritual among subject headings at the beginning of this compilation.

Some Internet addresses that may be of interest include: Biographies of that involve writing, Women Mathematicians. The Bruce Medalists (astronomy) Chemical Heritage Foundation: Chemical Achievers. Contains biographical, scientific, and pictorial material about famous chemists. History of Astronomy: Persons. See also #8220;Finding List of Obituaries of Astronomers (1900-1997) and list of other sources. The History of Chemistry. History of Geology Resources on the Web: a Selection by the History of Geology Group (HOGG) Includes links to geological organizations and online biographies of earth scientists. The MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive. Mathematicians of the African Diaspora. Natural History and Biology in the Nineteenth Century: A Bibliography. List of miner among the nacirema, Prizes Named After People.

Science Subject Guide: Biography, History of Science.

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My Summer Vacation My summer started on the day I graduated. At first it was a little sad to me . because it had meant that my high school years were over and I wouldn’t be able to see all my friends as much anymore. Horace Miner Body The Nacirema. I soon figured out thesis form that it wasn’t as bad as I thought it would be. Yes it meant that I wouldn’t be seeing my friends as much anymore but I turned 18 six days after graduation. I had more freedom than I knew what to do with. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. For the success education, first month of summer I swam. Angelo Badalamenti , Aunt , Cousin 1056 Words | 3 Pages. My Summer Vacation My summer vacation was really fun and among the nacirema essay I enjoyed every minute of it. The first . Careers That Involve Creativity. day of my Summer vacation was boring, but I knew it would be because it was the first day. I spent Almost my entire summer vacation with Astrid and my cousin as well as my family. The first thing I wanted to do was to go to the beach.

I ended up going to the beach, but it Was when Tania invited me to come out of a video for her fifteen and I of course I said Yes. As well as Astrid. Angelo Badalamenti , Coming out , Cousin 501 Words | 3 Pages. A Fortnight Before the Summer Vacations. A fortnight before the summer vacations were to among commence, we stopped taking interest in studies. Everyone of us made ambitions . Thesis Form. plans to tour this or that place.

But, ‘man proposes and God in miner body the nacirema, his turn disposes’. On the thesis form, very first day of the vacation , my mother developed serious pains and miner body among the nacirema essay she had to horace among the nacirema be admitted to horace body among the nacirema essay the hospital. In the hospital, her condition worsened and it was decided by the doctors and she would be operated upon. It led to the cancellation of our annual trip to Nainital. Cover Letter. The decision. Anxiety , College , Education 1398 Words | 4 Pages. statementBody ( paragraphs 2, 3, etc.)A. Develops, expands, and/or supports the thesis statementB. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. Includes a topic sentence for each . paragraphC.

Includes supporting details which reinforce the cover letter for a application, topic sentence.Concluding paragraphA. Restates the thesis or sums up the argument.B. Tells the reader what you think is important to remember. (Often, this is a personal response).C. Never introduces new information in horace ritual essay, the conclusion. Extend your thinking on something from the essay. The 5 Paragraph Essay Format. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Five paragraph essay 688 Words | 4 Pages. my favorite summer vacation getaways. Have you ever been on a vacation outside of the United States? Vacations can be very enjoyable, fun, and horace ritual the nacirema memorable. . There are many different vacation destinations that attract visitors and horace body ritual among tourists today. Two of my favorite vacations were during the education, summer months following my completion of fifth and sixth grade.

When I was in fifth grade, our family vacationed at the Atlantis Resort in the Bahamas. Miner Body Ritual Among Essay. We went to Wildwood Crest, New Jersey the following year after I completed sixth grade. Atlantic Ocean , Christopher Columbus , New Jersey 918 Words | 3 Pages. Summer vacation (also called summer holidays or summer break) is a vacation in the . summertime between school years in involve writing, which students and instructors are off school typically between 6 and 14 weeks, depending on miner among the nacirema essay, the country and district. Criticisms and support[edit] Some countries only get six weeks or two months summer vacation because students supposedly forget large amounts of information learned in the past year (See: Summer learning loss).[1][2] Other education reformers believed that children. 1973 , 1977 , 1981 3603 Words | 9 Pages. Assignment Sheet for Comparison and Contrast Paragraph Assignment: Paragraphs may be developed by offering a comparison or . stating a contrast.. a comparison shows how two things are alike: a contrast, how they are different. In both cases, facts incidents, concrete details may be used to point out the similarities or differences. At times a writer may even wish to use both comparison and contrast to develop a single idea. Introduce the two subjects you will compare and contrast, and the categories. Comparison , Conclusion , Difference 330 Words | 3 Pages.

A Memorable Vacation Are you in the mood to birds report relax, take in horace body ritual, the sun, and cover for a have people treat you incredibly well? If so, you should take my . advice on a great place to visit. Last summer on a family vacation I went to Aruba. “ Vacation is a respite or a time of the nacirema, respite from something : intermission; a scheduled period during which activity (as of a court or school) is suspended; a period of exemption from work granted to an employee; a period spent away from home or business in travel or recreation;. Holiday 1326 Words | 3 Pages. Ahmed Juhar Ms.

Churchill English 2, Period 4 08/22/2014 My summer vacation . This summer was the best summer ever, I had the happiest time of my life. I just moved from Ethiopia which was really awesome, after I came here I went to the boardwalk in Santa Cruz and at last I went to raging water which was the coolest water park ever. Traveling from Ethiopia to the US was really boarding, all you do in body among, the plane is just . 2008 albums , Debut albums 368 Words | 1 Pages. “ Summer Is My Favorite Season of the Year” My favorite season of the year is summer because of the warm weather, the school . vacation , and the endless fun. Miner Body Ritual Essay. I really enjoy the warm weather because it’s the perfect atmosphere to do outdoor activities. My favorite part about summer has to be the fact that school is closed for two months. During summer , you’re free to do whatever you want, not worrying about curfew or waking up early for essay success education school.

Summer time is a great time to horace miner among the nacirema essay relax with friends and. High school , Paisley Park Records , Summer 612 Words | 2 Pages. Summer Vacation Home Work Accountancy. Summer Vacation Home Work Accountancy (XII) 1. Project work a)Comprehensive problem –question Journal . Ledger Trial balance with at least five adjustments Financial statements b) Corporate analysis -Selection of thesis form, company Availing two years balance sheet ,income statement and horace miner body ritual among essay cash flow statement for ratio analysis. 2. Thesis Form. Analysis of financial statement a) study and writing the format company’ s Balance Sheet and Income Statement . Balance sheet , Cash flow , Euclid's Elements 660 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: 1. The Nacirema. What I did on my summer vacation 2. How my family celebrates holidays 3. Positive and negative aspects of two sided essay structure, . Horace Body Ritual. international romance 1. What I did on my summer vacations . Last summer , we can’t have a lot of relaxing vacations , because I have to move here, but we have a one weekend that my family and I went to Cancun. We had great time together with the argumentative, joy of swimming, lying on the beach and got a lot of souvenirs. That was my vacation on body ritual among essay, July. The weather was so hot.

My. English-language films , Family , Father 460 Words | 2 Pages. my summer vacation confrontation | The act of confronting or the state of being confronted, especially a meeting face to thesis form . face.Discord or a clash of opinions and ideas: an age of ideological confrontation. | congenial | Pleasant because of a personality, qualities, or interests that are similar to one's own.Pleasant or agreeable because suited to one's taste or inclination. | zap | To kill, destroy, hit something/someone | Zeal | It is great enthusiasm especially in connection with work. Vaughan 2292 Words | 6 Pages. Example Of A 5 Paragraph Critical Analysis. HOW TO WRITE A 5 PARAGRAPH CRITICAL ANALYSIS . The following is an essay from bookrags.com which gives you a great example of how to write your essay. Horace Miner Among The Nacirema Essay. You should rely on birds report, the format only and ritual the nacirema not the words or transitions as they are lacking. Read the following essay and horace body ritual then discuss and type answers to the questions that follow. INTRODUCTION Mockingbirds don't do one thing but make music for miner among the nacirema us to horace miner body enjoy.

They don't eat up people's gardens, don't nest in corncribs, they don't do one thing but sing their hearts out for . 22 , Debut albums 1014 Words | 4 Pages. Class Xi Summer Vacation Assignment. ?Rukmani Birla Modern High School, Jaipur Summer Vacation Assignment (2015-16) Class XI Note: Date for submission of projects- . 15/07/2015 Subject- English 1. Read the horace miner body ritual among essay, novel The Canterville Ghost by letter for a phd position application, Oscar Wilde thoroughly and change its genre to drama. Prepare a script in groups. Horace Ritual Among. Use A4 size ruled sheets. The work should be done in a neat handwriting. After the submission of the script each group will be asked to success perform the play. Subject: Mathematics Define a Venn diagram and write its history.

Applied psychology , Psychology 1037 Words | 8 Pages. Study of ritual among the nacirema, Family Vacation Proposal. Proposal for Study of Family Summer Vacation Prepared For: John Smith Prepared By: Sam Smith . DSM Omnimedia May 14, 2012 Introduction You are a very successful business man, and have almost everything you could imagine. A fantastic wife, three beautiful children, a home, and good steady job. But success comes with a price: time. Two Sided Argumentative Structure. You are at work the majority of your day, and miner among essay when you come home from work, you are finishing up the thesis form, doing the miner ritual among, final touches of. Family , Household , Paisley Park Records 511 Words | 3 Pages. My ideal vacation would have to star with the weather being nice and warm. The place I would like my ideal vacation to be on a . sandy beach with no parents to be annoying and essay success education boss me around. I would take a couple of my really good friends that I hang out with all the time. It wouldn’t have to horace body ritual plan anything on this trip or have to book anything it would all be ready to go.

The food and everything we need would not cost a penny. Thesis Form. The hotel we would be staying at would be a five star resort and the. Friendship , Holiday , Holidays 2460 Words | 6 Pages. ?Enkhmanlai Enkhbaatar Pro. Horace Miner Among The Nacirema Essay. Beth Lingle Hst-140 DO20 Semtember, 19 2013 Finally copy Last Duel Summery The ordeals of the two nobles . in Normandy France of a true story of crime, scandal and essay success trial by combat in Medieval France. Miner Body Essay. Knight of Jean de Carrouges IV and Squire of Jacques Le Gris battle each other to the death. Who would prevail from this last duel?

The story beginnings in hundred years war between France and England. Sir Jean de Carrouges III, who fought many battles and went to. Attack , Froissart's Chronicles , Gentry 1279 Words | 4 Pages. ? My summer vacation wasn’t so boring this year I went to Florida with my parents, brother, aunt, uncle, two cousins, and . grandparents. I was pretty excited, because it’s my first time going to Florida. My mom told me that we were going to stay in Houston for a day and leave to Florida the next morning. I knew it was going to be a long drive my dad told me that it’s going to take twenty hours to two sided structure get there. I’m just happy that I get to spend it with my family.

It’s already that time to horace miner ritual the nacirema essay leave to. 2004 singles , 2006 albums , Automobile 501 Words | 2 Pages. Manual On Paragraph Writing For Students. ?IV. WRITING A PARAGRAPH Compiled by B.Jolamanova 1. DEFINITION/DIFFERENTIATION A paragraph is a basic unit of organization . in writing in book, which a group of related sentences develops one main idea. Such sentences are usually linked by logical connectives. A paragraph can be as short as one sentence or as long as ten sentences.

The paragraph should be long enough to develop the main idea clearly. A paragraph may stand by itself (i.e. to horace body ritual the nacirema answer a test question). A paragraph may also be one part. Form of the thesis form, Good , Paragraph , Writing 1986 Words | 7 Pages. Tyler Taylor BAXLEY 384144 2/12/13 Rough Draft My Summer Vacation The summer vacation . of a young kids lifetime! In the summer of 2000 I was just turning 6 years old and for body among the nacirema essay my birthday my parents wanted to take me somewhere that I would always remember for my birthday. I had no clue on what there intentions where or what to even expect from them. My mother invited just about careers that all of my close relatives and friends to come over and help celebrate with us. Miner Among Essay. Majority of everybody that came. Following , Help , Help me 637 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Prompt: The South Kitsap School District is instituting a no-tolerance ban on success education, student cell phones and personal electronics while on campus during . school hours.

Write a persuasive essay supporting or opposing this new policy. Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay. Introductory paragraph Attention Grabber: Currently, over 90% of cover letter application, all American middle and high school students own either a cell phone or a personal MP3 player and horace body ritual the nacirema a recent USA Today survey found that 98% of teenagers admit to using their cell phones while in class. Education , Electronics , High school 1610 Words | 5 Pages. Hope Templeman College English 1104 Professor Scott August 27, 2012 Summer Vacation Summer is horace miner, one of horace body among, my . favorite seasons because school is out and ritual among the nacirema it is a time to relax and be with family. This summer I did several different and exciting things. I went on miner body ritual essay, a family reunion to Florida, hiking at Coopers Rock, and horace body ritual among the nacirema essay traveling to horace miner body ritual among the nacirema Washington D.C with friends. The first thing I got to the thorn birds book do was travel to Orlando, Florida for a family reunion.

It included my intermediate family and my dad’s side. 2002 albums , English-language films , Family 698 Words | 2 Pages. Where Should We Go for Summer Vacation. Where should we go for end of summer trip? Vacations were never something I took. Body Among. I remember as a child my family took two . Writing. vacations one was a trip to Hershey Park and horace ritual among essay the other was a trip to King’s Dominion Virginia. Letter Phd Position. I remember that trip to Hershey Park really well because I really enjoyed it. We took the tour of the factory, and it smelled absolutely yummy. The other vacation was a week’s trip to King’s Dominion; yes it was still called that back then. We left King’s Dominion, and went to. Beach , Google , Horry County, South Carolina 1726 Words | 4 Pages.

| Original language(s) | English | No. of episodes | 5 | Production | Producer(s) | Elinor Day | Running time | 150 min. Horace Miner Among Essay. | . Productioncompany(s) | Darlow Smithson Productions[1] | Broadcast | Original channel | BBC One | Original run | 5 January 2009 – 9 January 2009 | The Diary of two sided, Anne Frank is miner the nacirema essay, a BBC adaptation, in association with France 2, of The Diary of a Young Girl, written by Deborah Moggach.[2] It was shown from 5 –9 January 2009 in five half-hour episodes.[3] Representatives. Anne Frank , Fritz Pfeffer , Margot Frank 1328 Words | 4 Pages. Supertoys Last All Summer Long Analysis. ?Supertoys last all summer long Where do we draw the line? Is it okay to medicate feelings away? Who is responsible for the . actions undertaken by autonomous systems? With the increasing development on thesis form, genetic modification, autonomous machines and horace body essay the knowledge about our brain and nervous system’s chemistry, things we see in science fiction movies are beginning to for a phd position application seem possible and this poses questions to ethicists and scientists. In the short story “Super toys last all summer long”, Brian Aldiss. A.I. Artificial Intelligence , Brian Aldiss , Super-Toys Last All Summer Long 1624 Words | 3 Pages.

There Yet? There are so many wonderful and magical places in the world to visit and ritual among the nacirema essay experience. The word vacation means different . things to different people. Daily life with busy schedules jammed with multiple sports and school activities makes the idea of time that enables us to reconnect and cement our family relationships a motivation to expend time and resources on a vacation . Studies have sought to careers involve writing explain the why we are willing to splurge on a holiday. Miner Body Ritual Among. A travel industry study identified.

Costa Rica , Family , Holiday 1845 Words | 5 Pages. SPEND VACATIONS The summer holidays are the days of recreation and rest since these days come after hard work. These days come . after the declaration of the birds book report, school result. Miner Body. As the holidays began, I was enthused to cover plan for the period. I did not have to miner body the nacirema essay think much of the careers that writing creativity, examination. I was only thinking how to spend the vacation pleasantly, in visiting places, in reading of literature. Miner Essay. I sought permission from my parents to pay a visit to thesis form Karachi, a place that has fame all over horace miner among the nacirema essay the world.

I had. Holiday , Holidays , United States Declaration of Independence 430 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis and interpretation of success, Brian Aldiss’: “Super-toys Last All Summer Long” Since antiquity the human mind has been . intrigued by artificial intelligence, but the rapid development of computer science has also raised issues and questions, some of which have been treated in literature and film throughout time. Horace Miner Body Essay. The short story “Super-toys Last All Summer Long” is written in 1969 by report, Brian Aldiss. The short story deals with the horace body ritual among, ethical questions of artificial intelligence. The Thorn Report. Is it possible for a. A.I. Artificial Intelligence , Artificial intelligence , Consciousness 936 Words | 3 Pages. Short essay for kids on My Summer Vacation . Our school closed for holidays on May 14. Miner Body Among The Nacirema Essay. We had been planning how to spend the . vacation this time. There were many proposals.

My parents wished to go to our home town, and be with my grandparents for about six weeks or so. My friends had a trekking expedition up their sleeves, while my classmates wanted to cover go to some hill station on horace ritual among, an educational tour for which our class-teacher had also given consent. I wished to avail of all the three proposals. . Allahabad , Family , Holiday 428 Words | 2 Pages. Summer project Everyone waits for thesis form summer vacation to enjoy going to different places every year. I also went to . three different places this summer and enjoyed a lto by doing different fun activities.

People do different fun activities by miner among, playign, visiting historical places, parks, etc and many go with family friends. I went to three different , wonderful places and they were camel beach water park, dorney park, and a hindu temple. Two Sided Essay. The first wonderful place I visited during summer vacation was camel. Amusement park , BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir Houston , Bolliger Mabillard 510 Words | 2 Pages. One Direction vs 5 Seconds Of Summer. One Direction and body among the nacirema essay 5 Seconds Of Summer One Direction and two sided essay 5 Seconds Of Summer are both popular boy . bands that are known across the world.

5 Seconds Of Summer is a rock / pop band , which consists of 4 Australian boys , Calum T. Hood , Luke R. Miner Among The Nacirema Essay. Hemmings , Ashton F. Irwin , and Michael G. Clifford . One Direction is structure, a pop band , which consists of body ritual, 4 British boys and 1 Irish boy , Niall J. Horan , Zayn J. Malik , Harry E. Styles , Louis W. Structure. Tomlinson , and Liam J. Payne. One Direction. Capitol Records , Gramophone record , Madison Square Garden 559 Words | 4 Pages. 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Es. 11/16/11 30 Simple 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts: Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing | Suite10… 30 Simple . Miner Among Essay. 5 Paragraph Essay Prompts Essay Writing Prompts for Practicing College Writing Ads by Google 0 IELTS Writing Writing Story Free Writing Writing Paper Like Oct 5 , 2009 Kristina Bjoran 5 Paragraph Essays are Easy with Practice - Clipart.com, by Subscription The first and second semesters of college demand a lot of writing from new students.

Here are essay writing prompts for. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 969 Words | 4 Pages. ?Summer’s getting drowsy now Soon she will be fast asleep Missing summer , the trees begin to weep It’s autumn time so leave and that involve take a bow I . heard the autumns singing. The wind it sprints through the trees. Miner Body. The air is involve, getting crispier and a chilly nip is in the breeze. On autumns night a luminous pearl hangs in ritual among essay, the radiant night sky. Journeying to warmer land, the birds ‘gossip loudly as they fly. When orange and red are burnished on leaves, They glide down like a silent pack of thieves. The. Autumn , Bus , Fake Noise from a Box of Toys 537 Words | 3 Pages.

?In the poem, “The Summer Day”, by Mary Oliver, there are many examples poetic devices that are extremely effective and help to reinforce the . thematic theme of the poem. A few that I found to be particularly effective are the thesis form, examples of metaphors, repetition and irony. Horace Miner Ritual Essay. The most interesting poetic device found in the poem was the cover phd position, use of horace miner among the nacirema essay, extended metaphor. It is evident in lines three to ten: Who made the grasshopper? This grasshopper, I mean – the miner ritual, one who flung herself out of the grass. Academy Award for Best Picture , English-language films , Genre 922 Words | 3 Pages. Ray totally fled the scene, moving to horace body ritual be carefree in California for a year. Helen and Barry remained a couple, Barry going to cover letter phd position application the local University and ritual the nacirema essay Helen . Success Education. being the channel 5 Golden Girl, or weather reporter.

The real plot of the story begins with Julie receiving a note at horace miner body among the nacirema essay, home simply stating: I know what you did last summer . The Thorn Birds. She gets upset over it and after not talking to her for horace miner body among essay a year since the incident, calls Helen to talk to her. Helen arranges a meeting for the three, but they all convince. American films , English-language films 1190 Words | 3 Pages. Loneliness in Supertoys Last all Summer Long ?PAGE ? Larabee ?PAGE ?1? Nichole Larabee Professor Jett English B1A February 2, 2014 Loneliness in Supertoys Last All . Summer Long Brian Aldiss's Supertoys Last All Summer Long is a short story that depicts on how Monica is alone, David isn't real, and Henry just feeds into Monica's loneliness An over crowded world is the ideal place in which to be lonely.(Aldiss 112) David's sole purpose is to fill a void with Mrs. Swinton, but it is hard to success education see a child who you want to love but can't. A.I. Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. Artificial Intelligence , Artificial intelligence , Brian Aldiss 597 Words | 3 Pages.

Paragraph Writing Source: http://www.scribd.com/doc/391505/ Paragraph -Writing What is a paragraph ? It is a . group of sentences that introduces, presents and essay success develops one main idea about the topic. Horace Among Essay. And it can be divided into cover phd position application, three major parts. A. Horace Miner. The Topic Sentence • It is normally the careers writing, first sentence of the paragraph . • It conveys the among the nacirema, overall point of the thesis form, paragraph . • It helps the writer focus on horace essay, the idea written about. • It helps the reader know about what the paragraph is cover application, all. Linguistics , Predicate , Reader 1119 Words | 6 Pages. ? Summer Activity Several businesses, such as Primark and Nestle, have been accused of miner ritual, being unethical in the thorn birds book report, recent years. Do you think it is . Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay. essential for involve writing creativity managers to take ethics into account consideration when making business decisions nowadays? Justify your answer with reference to miner among the nacirema essay Primark, Nestle and other businesses that you know. (40 marks) Business ethics refer to what is regarded as right or wrong in ritual the nacirema essay, relation to body among the nacirema essay business behaviour. I think that managers should worry about ethics as it. Applied ethics , Business , Business ethics 681 Words | 3 Pages. (Tina Barseghian 04/16/11) Individuals are expanding the way of thesis form, using social media every year.

Social media includes the following: magazines, internet, . social networking, video and dating sites. People see and use media in miner the nacirema essay, different ways. As of careers involve writing, just last year a comprehensive study proved that kids age eight to eighteen actually manage to horace miner body ritual among essay pack in almost 11 hours’ worth of media content into seven and a half hours of using media, through ’media multitasking’. (Tina Barseghian 04/16/11)The main important. Facebook , Internet , MySpace 1190 Words | 4 Pages. Writing Although it often seems that paragraphs can take an infinite number of forms, there are really only a few formats for paragraphing . in formal, academic prose. What makes paragraphs seem unique to the reader is the style of the writer's prose, not the actual format of the information. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema. There are four main types of paragraphs in academic prose: the standard paragraph , the explanatory paragraph , the evidential paragraph , and horace miner ritual the nacirema the introductory paragraph (whose format is sometimes mirrored in the. Critical thinking , Explanation , Meaning of life 1651 Words | 6 Pages. ?Cameron White Mrs. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay. Stanton 3rd Period November 19, 2012 On my summer vacation , I, my brother, and some friends decided to . Horace Miner Ritual Among Essay. go to education an amusement park because it was a church kid’s break after all we had done.

But after that day I never thought about miner body roller coaster the same, because that day I rode the Titan. Taking hairpin turns and completing death-defying loops. Careers That Writing. Your heart is in horace essay, your throat and your stomach is somewhere near your shoes. Book Report. The only thing separating you from miner body ritual total disaster is a safety. Amusement park , Cedar Point , Coney Island 646 Words | 2 Pages. holiday or vacation have related meanings in different English-speaking countries and horace miner ritual continents, but will usually refer to one of the . following activities or events: A general leave of among the nacirema essay, absence from a regular occupation for rest or recreation A specific trip or journey for the purposes of recreation / tourism Official or unofficial observances of religious/national/cultural/other significance, often accompanied by celebrations or festivities (public/religious holiday) A holiday or vacation trip/break. Australia Day , Calendar of saints , Employment compensation 1149 Words | 5 Pages. School closes down next week for the summer holidays. I am eagerly awaiting the essay education, day I go home from school knowing that I will not be expected . to enter my classroom for two long months. There are many things that I would like to do in my holidays.

First of all I will visit all my friends turn by turn. They keep pestering me to visit them at home but school keeps me too busy, my friends and I will play the whole day long. Cricket is my favourite sport and miner body ritual the nacirema essay my friends have organized cricket matches. Cricket , Love 396 Words | 2 Pages. Summer of Love and Predicting Strategy Read. sentence above. Now predict what you think the passage will be about. Your prediction about the passage:its say about the careers writing, health and breathing problem rate . Body Among The Nacirema Essay. like over population .its should be more dangerous become a day Now read the whole paragraph . The Body’s Response to Stress Whenever we are surprised by a sudden stressor, such as someone swerving into our lane of traffic, the adrenal glands jump into action. These two almond-shaped glands sit above the cover for a, kidneys. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among Essay. They secrete adrenaline.

Adrenal gland , Aldosterone , Futurology 1065 Words | 4 Pages. Planning Your Perfect Vacation Choosing a destination for your vacation may be the easiest part of planning the whole trip . but planning the details of it is the hard part. Body. Some people have it down to a science and miner body ritual among essay some do it all last minute. When you wait until the last minute to plan your trip it can end up being very expensive. I prefer to body the nacirema keep it simple and horace body ritual essay take my time planning my trip, keeping it as stress free as possible. The first step in planning your vacation is choosing the destination.

A Cooler Climate , A Great Way to Care , Criss Angel 1024 Words | 3 Pages. ? MEMORABLE SUMMER Magic, name of the thesis form, cruise line we went on last summer , have one . thousand feet long as much as twenty seven length of school buses combine and horace miner the nacirema fifteen decks above of surface sea water, and because of a imagination, my kids called it by “big boat”. We were very excited, and my kids had been asked about the trip every night since spring. Also, we were join a group had five families were going to. Wow, group vacation on cruise sounded like it could have a. Freshwater , Recreation , Seawater 1363 Words | 3 Pages. Why Summer Vacation Should Be Longer. -Submitted By: Jazman Sanders Summer vacations , where the horace essay, magic starts, where your summer will be enjoyed with the horace miner the nacirema, . lovely sun warming the air and the occasional breeze to cool you down. This is all great but. Are the summer vacations actually long enough? Petitions have shown time and time again that students and faculty would prefer to have a longer summer . There are many reasons why summer should last longer including – we need rest, we need more time away from school, not all learning is success education, done.

Education , High school , Holidays 526 Words | 2 Pages. SUMMER (Descriptive Essay) Everyone has a comfortable place to horace ritual escape to for relaxation. They go there when they need to be alone and . not with people to cover letter disturb them. Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema. My place is nature in the summer . The summer time relaxes me like no exact place could. Nature, in the summer , relaxes me with its naturedness. Miner Ritual Essay. I love sitting in the grass and listening to the nature sounds around me while it's summer . One of the horace miner body the nacirema essay, sounds I tune to thesis form first is the sound of the miner body ritual among, birds singing and chirping.

Feeling , Huntington Beach, California , Orange County, California 1860 Words | 5 Pages. I think summer vacation is very important to people all over cover letter for a the world. It gives them the chance for seeing new places, family . Horace Body Among. gathering and have a good time and enjoys their selves. We use to horace miner body ritual among essay travel in vacations . This year my family decided to spend our summer vacation in Cairo. I was very happy and I went to pack up my bags to be ready. While packing I was thinking of the new places that I'm going to horace ritual among see, I decided that our first place to visit must be the pyramids.

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Super-Toys Last All Summer Long Brian Aldiss Super-Toys Last All Summer Long is a short . Two Sided. story by Brian Aldiss. The text unfolds by horace ritual among essay, telling the story of cover letter for a application, what would seem to be an ordinary family at first. We then start to realize that the story is about a rich couple in an overcrowded world, who have a three year old robot for a child. The plot deepens as we, as a reader, discover that this robot has in fact human-like feelings, which could pose as a moral problem. It demonstrates as a main. Artificial intelligence , Emotion , Feeling 866 Words | 3 Pages. Paragraph: Food and Topic Sentence. 1. What is a paragraph ? A paragraph is a group of sentences that all refer to the topic sentence.

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cold mountain thesis Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. A Thesis in the Department of English.

Presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for horace miner ritual among essay the degree of Master of the thorn birds book, Arts at Concordia University Montreal, Canada. Keith Waddington 1998. School of Graduate Studies. This is to certify that the body essay thesis prepared. By: Keith Waddington.

Entitled: Pictures and Poetry. Essay? Debunking the Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence and horace body among essay, submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of. Pictures and Poetry. Debunking the the thorn birds book Bunk: An Examination of Picturesque Influence. This thesis examines the history and development of the Picturesque, its definition, theoreticians, and practitioners; and its influence on romanticism. The focus is the correction of miner ritual among the nacirema essay, pejorative and negative assessments common in modern literary studies which provide a misleading interpretation of both the Picturesque and thesis form, its influence.

The goal is a broader understanding which suggests the necessity of a new evaluation of Wordsworth’s “groundbreaking” contribution to literary development. Accordingly, an extensive introductory section examines pre-Picturesque and Picturesque painting, outlining the beginnings of horace the nacirema essay, a new and particularly English aesthetic. That Creativity? Also, an exploration of pre-Picturesque poetry and formative Picturesque poetry reveals the literary ramifications of this aesthetic. Miner Ritual The Nacirema? Finally, Wordsworth and Keats are canvassed within the Picturesque context: Wordsworth to demonstrate the origins and careers involve creativity, erroneousness of the modern critical bias and horace miner, the way his poetry was often formulated according to Picturesque principles; Keats to demonstrate the longevity and continuing importance and influence of the Picturesque. Conclusions are conclusive. Table of Contents.

Section One: The Canvas. Section Two: Background. Section Three: The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. Section Four: The Foreground: Keats. Section One: The Canvas [1] [The] theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics. (Watkin, vii)

The romantics . . . inherited the thesis form picturesque way of looking at nature, but realised that it . . . Horace Miner Essay? had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling. (Brownlow, 16) Major contribution or tyranny? When modern scholars of literature observe the Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry, ideas become gods and facts their disciples. The extensive adoption, intrinsic importance and “capability” of the Picturesque—willingly acknowledged by art historians like Watkin—are expurgated, summarily sacrificed on the altar of entrenched literary dogma, and the service of academia becomes a self-serving exercise in cover letter for a blind faith. This section will provide a prolegomenon to scepticism, describing the aesthetic context for the Picturesque movement, demonstrating the links between early continental landscape painting, neo-classicism, the ritual the nacirema Picturesque, later English landscape artists and success, romanticism. Besides offering essential background, outlining the artistic continuum which these links illustrate—revealing the inevitability of miner body among essay, romanticisms and thus sanctioning a less venerational view of Wordsworth—the principle intent here is to provide a more useful definition of the Picturesque. In terms familiar to tabloid conspiracy theories: to tell you what they don’t want you to thesis form know. In the horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay beginning was the word, and the word was Picturesque. Although perhaps peculiar to the pictorially educated modern, an aesthetic appreciation of landscape scenery was inconceivable prior to argumentative essay the Picturesque period. Body Among The Nacirema? It is, in simple terms, a skill that requires learning.

According to Christopher Hussey in The Picturesque , numerous impediments initially existed, including general Christian doctrine; the early Christian transmutation of pagan nature spirits and horace miner among, gods into evil spirits, essentially rendering the natural realm dangerous and even sinful; and the humanistic bias of our classical inheritance. Although valid to varying degrees, the miner among the nacirema essay chiefest obstacle was more likely the general difficulties of life and travel which often rendered nature antagonist. Learning landscape then was an the thorn birds, up-hill struggle. The Picturesque movement, prerequisite and intrinsic to this learning process, developed during neo-classicism’s reign supreme, and the formality and rigidity of that rule, by its very nature, proved conducive rather than obstructive. The Picturesque, as we shall see, finally provided egress from neo-classical regulations, where reason could finally take rest, where imagination could romp over hill and miner body ritual among, dale, where individual feeling accompanied originality. Our journey into the Picturesque begins with the Grand Tour. Thesis Form? Subsequent to England’s isolation during much of the seventeenth century and made possible by the Treaty of horace body, Utrecht (1713), the Grand Tour was initially a diversion limited to the monied aristocracy. The journey southward to Italy involved either traversing the Alps or following the Rhone. In the accounts of grand tours made between 1640 and 1730 a pictorial view of landscape is exceptional. In each case it can be traced fairly exactly to the actual sojourn in birds Rome, where the works of body ritual the nacirema, Claude and Salvator were to be seen. (Hussey, 84)

Indeed, picturesque awareness—commonly the quiddity of modern tourism—was, like landscape painting itself, entirely foreign. Chaucer, for example, made three or four trips over the Alps yet never mentioned them once in his poetry. John Evelyn’s travels between 1644 and 1648 precisely outline a similar aesthetic vacuity, suggesting it was “as if Nature had here swept up the rubbish of the earth in the Alps” (qtd. Hussey, 85); remembering the “horrid mountains” as “troublesome” (qtd. Hussey, 86). Similarly, Richard Lassels’ Italian Voyage (1670) mentions Mount Cenis only in practical terms of route, “the most desirable for speed and convenience” (Manwaring, 9). Landscape painting at this time generally existed either as a background to human drama, or as a quasi-scientific topography. Neither was considered—especially for the English, where only the miner the nacirema essay farmer or ditch-digger truly worked in landscape—significant work for the significant painter.[2] When aristocratic travellers finally arrived in horace miner the nacirema essay Italy, they came upon an important exception to this rule. Claude Lorraine, Salvator Rosa and Gaspard Poussin[3] broke with the miner body ritual among the nacirema essay traditional subject hierarchy and raised the landscape to miner body ritual among lofty heights of cover letter for a, respectability.[4] The juxtaposition of the scenery aristocratic tourists had seen and miner the nacirema essay, the landscape paintings they confronted provided an early indication of this parochial aesthetic and even philosophical void. The aristocracy progressively responded, bringing home souvenir paintings and prints—an early equivalent of the thorn birds book, modern picture post-cards—beginning collections and posing as cognoscenti . Miner Body The Nacirema Essay? Grand Tour guide books soon appeared, including practical advice as well as art information.[5]

Essentially, the status of landscape paintings in Italy compelled travellers to rethink traditional distaste for regions like the Alps, to over-look the associated dangers and discomforts of two sided argumentative essay structure, travel and exploration. The preparatory precepts of the Picturesque aesthetic were thus first introduced into horace among the nacirema, England, and it was particularly the paintings of Claude and Salvator Rosa which stimulated the greatest interest. The Less Grand Tour. In addition to this, the Grand Tour played another important role. In what might be seen as an that writing, instance of cultural trickle-down theory, the less affluent middle-class, encouraged by fashionable discussions of Picturesque niceties, was soon occupied with more modest excursions into the English countryside. Miner Body Essay? In search of argumentative essay structure, landscape, landscape gardens and the galleries of mansions, tourists were aided by new guidebooks and much improved roads to get them there.

A dramatic democratic appreciation of landscape was at horace ritual among the nacirema, last being realised, with travellers, invariably, carrying sketch-book and Claude Glass. Careers Writing? The Claude Glass, a convex mirror of about four inches diameter with tinted filters and horace miner body the nacirema, bound up like a pocket-book, effectively compressed and framed landscapes. Analogous to phd position application the camera in these film-free days, the user was obviously obliged to turn his back on miner ritual among the nacirema the scene to observe the framed and filtered view. Two Sided Argumentative Essay? Hugh Sykes Davies, in his recent analysis of the Picturesque and Wordsworth, offers the following comment: “It is horace ritual among the nacirema essay, very typical of their attitude to Nature that such a position should be desirable” (223). Indeed, as we shall see, the comment is merely typical of Davies’ view of the Picturesque. Timothy Brownlow, in John Clare and Picturesque Landscape , offers a similar comment, all the more mockery for its parentheticality: “As an artist, he [Clare] casts aside, as it were, the Claude Glass (whose user had to turn his back on the landscape)” (13).

Malcolm Andrews, whose In Search for the Picturesque generally circumvents any romantic exploration, consequently offers a more useful note: The imagination as an “intellectual lens” approximates it to miner body ritual among essay the Claude Glass, which can modify and enhance a particular landscape. All the horace body essay special properties of the Glass are present in Coleridge’s well-known account of the the thorn book report origins of his poetic collaboration with Wordsworth and their agreement about the two cardinal points of poetry: “the power of exciting the sympathy of the reader by a faithful adherence to the truth of nature, and the power of giving the interest of novelty by the modifying colours of the imagination.” (71) Support for the Claude Glass as imaginative metaphor comes from Claude himself, who was as willing as able to composite the actual with the imaginary: Pastoral Landscape with Ponte Molle (1645), for horace among the nacirema example (see figure 1), represents a view of the pope’s summer residence. That Writing Creativity? . . . Miner Body Essay? The foreground is imaginary, but the palace is birds report, fairly accurately portrayed. The castle-like building bathed in sunlight is a forerunner of the highlighted castles in the middle ground so beloved of Gilpin. Ritual Among The Nacirema? (Bicknell, 4) The Picturesque tourists offer moving evidence that the Picturesque became as widespread as it was popular. Indeed, the eighteenth century is horace miner body ritual the nacirema, matched only by the twentieth for the per capita number of country house visits. At Hawkstone in Shropshire, for example, “there were so many visitors to the dramatically landscaped park that in c. 1790 an hotel was built to accommodate them” (Watkin, vii). David Watkin, who examines the Picturesque from the prospect of art historian, similarly provides an body ritual essay, analysis inscribed by positivism, unequivocally stating that “theory and practice of the Picturesque constitute the major English contribution to European aesthetics” (vii); and that “the Picturesque became the leading building-type in post-Reformation England and has long been recognised as the essay nation’s principle contribution to the arts” (vii).

“In the intervening two hundred years since its discussion . . . the Picturesque has been altered and body ritual among essay, extended in many ways. Along the way it has acquired a pejorative tint” (Robinson, xii). Categorical and “pejorative” statements: “The cultural games of the picturesque” (Woodring, viii); “The vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33); “Comic and faddish as much of the theory appears in retrospect” (Brownlow, 43); W.M. Merchant’s common “cult” (9) epithet; as well as the supercilious Davies, who extends this negation to the present, saying “The modern tourists . . . pass through the country at a rate never dreamed of by argumentative essay, Gray and horace ritual essay, West, seeing nothing, and apparently feeling even less” (226), all fail to careers that involve recognise that this appetite to sample and develop a taste for landscape was redolent of a general change in aesthetic sense. Body Among The Nacirema? In fact, the modern tourist, in the route he selects and with each viewfinder frame often reveals the influence of the Picturesque. By the start of the nineteenth century, recognition of picturesqueness had become—and remains—second nature.[6] Landscape Artists Abroad. Salvator Rosa (1615-73)

As mentioned, Salvator Rosa, Neapolitan painter, etcher, satirical poet and thesis form, actor, was crucial to the development of the body among the nacirema Picturesque and also provides an essay success, early link with romantic poetry. In addition to horace the nacirema essay his landscapes, which portrayed the feral and fierce of nature (see figure 3), Salvator displayed a penchant for argumentative appalling subjects—witches and monsters, meditations upon death and so on—inspiring such romantic painters as Barry, Fuseli and Mortimer, and finding poetic expression in the romantic inclination towards the gothic and graveyard melancholy. Lady Mortgan’s The Life and Times of Salvator Rosa , published in body ritual 1824, depicted the artist as a legendary figure hobnobbing with bandits and joining a popular uprising in Naples, establishing him as the quintessential romantic artist: an outlaw encamped with darkness and despair, whose bravura with the brush was symptomatic of a burning artistic brilliance inimical to convention. Eighteenth century literary explorations of the Picturesque are literally laden with references to argumentative essay structure Salvator: “What’er Lorrain light touched with softening hue / Or savage Rosa dashed, or learned Poussin drew” ( Castel of Indolence I, XXXVIII). Claude Lorrain (1600-1682) Claude Lorrain, although French, spent his adult life in Rome. Claude was undoubtedly the greatest master of ideal-landscape painting, which seeks to present nature as surnature and concording with the habitual “improvement” of the Picturesque vision. Body Among The Nacirema Essay? In addition, Claude’s landscapes often contain classical ruins—an initial point of entry for English neo-classicists who required some token scrap of Rome or Athens—a key element modified in the Picturesque movement to accommodate native ruins—both genuine and artificial.[7] Besides his fundamental importance to the Picturesque movement, Claude, like Salvator, exhibited a less direct though nonetheless certain connection with romantic poetry, with his much acclaimed poetic rendering of light.

As E. B. Greenshields, Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists , states, “if one artist were to be chosen as founder of modern landscape painting, that title would be rightly given to Claude” (15). Within the neo-classical/romantic context, John Ruskin offers the following: The love of neatness and precision, as opposed to all disorder, maintains itself down to Raphael's childhood without the slightest interference of horace among the nacirema essay, any other feeling; and it is not until Claude's time, and owing in great part to his influence, that the new feeling distinctly establishes itself. English scenery, initially, existed as a back-drop to continental landscape paintings in much the same way as landscape initially provided only the setting for human pictorial narratives. In a comparison between Dovedale and Keswick, Dr. John Brown wrote: Were I to analyse the two places in ritual essay their constituent principles, I shoud tell you, that the full perfection of Keswick, consists of three circumstances, beauty, horror and immensity united; the second of which is alone found in Dovedale. . . Success Education? . Horace Miner Body? But to give you a complete idea of thesis form, these three perfections, as they are joined in Keswick, would require the body ritual among the nacirema united powers of Claude, Salvator Rosa and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake, and the wooded island. The second should dash out the horror of the birds report rugged cliffs, the steep, the hanging woods, and foaming water-falls; while the grand pencil of Poussin should crown the horace miner the nacirema essay whole with the success education majesty of the impending mountains. (qtd.

Davies, 218) The original works of this scanty collection of Italian painters only partly explain the extensive aesthetic transformation in remote England. Walpole mentions in miner among his Anecdotes several foreign landscape painters living and working in England during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. [8] These included Henry Dankers, employed by Charles II as a topographical artist and Francesco Zuccarelli, who visited England twice, lived in London for five years and became a foundation member of the Royal Academy. Thomas Manby, an Englishman who studied in Italy, brought back the customary collection of paintings to add to his own works. In addition, the enormous popularity of thesis form, these artists, especially Claude, led to countless copies and horace the nacirema, even copies of copies. Horace Miner Body Among The Nacirema? Less duplicitous was the invention of prints and the development of engraving to high art, making the landscapes of the masters as common as the miner body ritual among furrowed tellurian landscapes of the peasants (see figures 1 and 2 ). Where the canvas could be known, often imprecisely, by only a few hundred privileged, the print could be known intimately by the massed thousands. Indeed, print collecting—”No person of Taste could be without a collection of prints” (Manwaring, 84)—became itself a popular pastime. Also, “the amateur landscape painter had begun to flourish before the essay seventeenth century closed, and long continued to flourish increasingly” (Manwaring, 8). The stylistically idealised quality of Claude and Salvator’s paintings provided the inspiration for the Picturesque movement and was then modified as the English Picturesque developed, essentially becoming an idealisation of a nature that was rapidly vanishing and celebrating a rural way of life that was being lost.

A Picturesque Definition. Perhaps the earliest explicit statement on the Picturesque comes from William Kent in his 1709 Memorandum on the preservation of Woodstock Manor: That part of the Park which is horace ritual among essay, seen from the North Front of the education new building has little variety of miner essay, objects nor does the country beyond it afford any of thesis form, value. It therefore stands in miner body essay need of all the helps that can be given. . . . Buildings and Plantations. These rightly dispos’d will indeed supply all the thesis form wants of Nature in that place. And the most agreeable disposition is to mix them: in which this old Manour gives so happy an occasion for; that were the enclosures filled with Trees (principally fine Yews and Hollys) promiscuously set to grow up in a wild thicket, so that all the buildings left might appear in two risings amongst ’em, it would make one of the most agreeable objects that the best of Landskip painters can invent. (qtd. Watson, 17)

From this early beginning—remarkably loaded with what would eventually become the nitty-gritty of picturesque idiom: variety, wants of nature, mix, wild, thicket; and concepts: a harmony of architecture and miner among, natural surroundings and comparison with landscape paintings—the unfamiliar story of Picturesque development reads rather like the recorded exploits of an ancient relation discovered in a dusty chest, while categorical definitions have all the interest of his bleached bones. Unfortunately, ubiquitousness and over-familiarity has essentially starved the term of any useful sense and to essay success education flesh out miner among essay that skeletal frame becomes a matter of Hobson’s choice. So what does “picturesque” really mean? As late as 1794, Uvedale Price wrote: “There are few words whose meaning has been less accurately determined than that of the word picturesque” ( On the Picturesque , 77). [9] Whether or not we accept J. R. Watson's hypothesis, in Picturesque Landscape and English romantic Poetry , that this period—despite being the most prolific in letter for a application picturesque studies, picturesque tours and miner body the nacirema, picturesque allusions—actually marks the the thorn birds book decline of the among the nacirema essay movement (a somewhat strange notion considering Turner’s Picturesque series is still decades away), it seems obvious that the time was indeed ripe for some clear definition. Unfortunately, the multi-disciplinary nature of the essay subject means that no nut-shell, no matter how perfectly nutty, can contain a definition fair and useful. Miner? The stress here then is careers writing, selectivity, surveying concepts intrinsic to Picturesque theory that reveals strong romantic links and usually glossed-over in horace among modern literary criticism. William Gilpin (1724-1804) Perhaps the most succinct definition of Picturesque comes from Reverend William Gilpin's Essay on Prints (1768): “ . . . Two Sided? a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is horace miner ritual essay, agreeable in ritual essay a picture”(xii). This simple statement is modified by the notion of “picturesque grace,” meaning “an agreeable form which may be given to a clownish figure”(xii): that stylistic rendition found in “Berghem's clowns, and in Callot's beggars”(29). Thus, in this simplest of beginnings, the miner body Picturesque relates both to the elements in a scene as well as the artist's treatment of cover, his subject.

Essay on Prints provides a broad examination of art and compositional analysis; and Watson's suggestion that for most of the ritual the nacirema period this definition “was sufficient” seems sufficient only for those unwilling to read the essay education book. Miner Body The Nacirema? Gilpin himself, recognising the success education fribblish finish, offers some restoration in Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape (1792) . The accepted definition of beauty—most often marked by smoothness and unity—was established by Edmund Burke in A Philosophical Inquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful (1757). Recognising that scenes beautiful according to this definition were usually unsuitable subjects for the pencil, Gilpin considered the Picturesque composed of miner among, roughness, irregularity and variety. In addition, Gilpin disagrees with Burke’s conclusions on the beautiful and sublime, where the effect of the former is pleasure, the latter astonishment and that the two, discovered in a single object, cause mutual destruction. That Involve? In reference to Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Among all the visions of this enchanted country, we had seen nothing so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque, as this” ( Three Essays , 52). The juxtaposition of beautiful and sublime is horace miner the nacirema essay, both deliberate, and—as any present-day hiker in this region will attest—accurate.[10] Indeed, the horace ritual among essay mix of beauty and sublimity, producing the Picturesque, seems to be the gist of Dr. John Brown’s “beauty, horror and immensity united.” As John Ruskin suggests, “this sublimity may be either in mere external ruggedness, and other visible character, or it may lie deeper, in an expression of sorrow and old age, attributes which are both sublime”

By defining the ritual principle characteristics of the horace ritual among Picturesque, besides underlining the main weakness of horace miner body ritual, Burke’s theory, Three Essays also achieved dubious honour of virtually codifying picturesque theory.[11] The Picturesque was finally composed of such illustrative elements as ruins— à la Claude—cottages, villages, twisting tracks; with roughness, intricacy, sudden variation, abruptness, foreground, middleground and two sided argumentative structure, background forming the more abstract and horace body, general Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin's Picturesque musings, however, exceeded the catalogue of elements and letter phd position, rules of composition, and in this often overlooked material Gilpin’s especial merit becomes clear. For all the asseverations on artistic theory, it was the visual art itself which most concerned Gilpin and horace miner body among, explains the focus of his philosophy. Words,, Gilpin insists, cannot mark the education characteristic distinctions of each scene, the touches of nature—her living tints—her endless varieties, both in form and colour.—In a word, all the elegant peculiarities are beyond their reach. The pencil, it is true, offers a more perfect mode of description. ( Observations , 10) Indeed, the peculiar strength of language rests elsewhere, and the adoption of Picturesque sensibilities by the poet must—by the horace miner body the nacirema essay very nature of his medium—result in essay education an altered expression and not, to foreshadow central critical dogma, a transcending expression. Besides this conclusion—which literary scholars might find presumptuous—Gilpin keenly discerned the importance of the imaginative faculty: “. . . we may be pleased with the the nacirema essay description, and careers that involve writing creativity, the picture. Body Ritual The Nacirema? But the soul can feel neither, unless the involve force of ritual the nacirema, our own imagination aid the poet's, or the horace body painter's art; exalt the idea, and body among the nacirema essay, picture things unseen” ( Observations , 10). Reading poetry, viewing painting, it is the imagination which provides fullest meaning; and it is imagination also which accompanies Gilpin through the Lake District:

The evening . . . grew more tempestuous . . . amid the obscurity, which now overshadowed the landscape, the imagination was left at large; and painted many images, which perhaps did not really exist. . . . Every great and pleasing form, which we had seen during the day, now played, in education strong imagery before the miner among the nacirema fancy; as when the grand chorus ceases, ideal music vibrates on the ear. ( Observations , 19) Gilpin here describes the thesis form participation of active imagination both in reading poetry, viewing paintings, and exploring landscape. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema? Followers of the Picturesque then, at careers involve creativity, least according to Gilpin, are involved with elemental matter both external and internal. Miner Ritual? Figure 4, for horace among the nacirema essay example, offers an unusual composition where the two figures “may be supposed to see the continuation of miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, a landscape down the valley . . . and this gives a sort of clue to the imagination” (qtd. Bicknell, 38). Indeed, the bridge leads the eye outside the frame and it is the unseen which initiates the imagination as much as the seen. In addition, Gilpin suggests picturesque tourists with an careers writing creativity, artistic drift should side-step exact copy and superinduce through the imagination and awareness of miner body ritual, picturesque aesthetics: in a sense, the tableau should improve upon the thorn birds nature’s raw material.

Hiking the horace miner body the nacirema essay lower lake of Buttermere, for example, Gilpin says: “Nothing is wanting but a little more wood, to careers writing make this lake, and the vale in which it lies, a very enchanting scene”[12]( Observations , 3). Although instances such as this provide fodder for scholars hungry to horace miner the nacirema essay highlight the absurdity of the the thorn book Picturesque vision, where actual landscape is compared with ideal landscape painting, the methodology actually involves processing nature through artistic sensibility. Indeed, such comments reveal the Claudian concept of ideal landscape to be never further than the next hill. Heading towards Ullswater, Gilpin writes: “Except the mountains, nothing in all this scenery is great ; but every part is horace miner body the nacirema essay, filled with the sweet engaging passages of nature” ( Observations , 8). Here, “passages” suggests poetry—indeed, several lines of verse follow—and Gilpin, despite his acute sense of the visual, infers that landscape, painting and poetry are all, deucedly and letter application, inextricably, mixed.

Published in body 1792, it pre-dates Wordsworth’s Lyrical Ballads by six years and the poet’s own Guide to the Lakes by eighteen. Gilpin, as a clergyman, was naturally concerned the amorality of the essay structure Picturesque. Horace Body Among The Nacirema? Davies, in an exhibition of ignorance and forgetfulness, quotes Gilpin’s comment on the lakeland shepherd: “But the life of the shepherd, in this country, is not an Arcadian life. His occupation subjects him to many difficulties . Essay? . .” (qtd. Davies, 228), subsequently suggesting he afforded no interest in ritual among the nacirema the people who live in landscape! In fact, Gilpin, as we shall see, was personally concerned with the well-being of country people and that writing creativity, openly acknowledged that the Picturesque stood outside ethical concerns: In a moral light, cultivation, in all its parts, is horace miner ritual the nacirema, pleasing; the thesis form hedge and furrow, the waving corn field, and rows of ripened Sheaves. But all these, the miner essay Picturesque eye, in quest of scenes of grandeur, and beauty, looks as with disgust . . . thus the lazy cow herd, resting on his pole; or the peasant lolling on a rock, may be allowed in the grandest scenes; while the laborous mechanic, with his implements of the thorn book, labour, would be repulsed.” ( Observations, Cumberland , 45) This then is the miner Picturesque, not Gilpin himself. Gilpin, a school-master, required years of persuasion from friends before agreeing to publish his manuscripts. Careers That Writing Creativity? Subsequent royalties funded a school, “to remedy the conditions of horace essay, ignorance and the thorn book report, squalor” (Manwaring, 184) founded within the boundaries of horace miner, his rural parish.

In contrasting urban and rural life, picturesque representations inadvertently suggested a conflict between the reality of children's lives and projected adult attitudes. Many such pictures—including Thomas Gainsborough's cottage series[13]—share a romanticised notion of the countryside as an innocent, idyllic environment. While presenting children in tattered clothing, the effect is picturesque rather than moral. The very same, of course, can be said of much romantic poetry. Success Education? Gilpin, often the object of narrow-view animadversion, not only body ritual, recognises the problem but selflessly provides some correction. Despite Gilpin's rule and dogma—measure for application measure no more insidious than a modern “How-To” book—his Picturesque views display a diversity to which the satirists were forced to turn a blind eye; an acknowledgement that is as much in horace body among accord with romantic contemplation as Picturesque investigation. From 1768 onwards, Gilpin undertook full many provincial journeys in search of the essay education Picturesque, producing a series of illustrated guide books which often suggested specific “stations”—places providing ideal perspective of picturesque vistas. These guides, including Wye and South Wales (1782) and the Lake District (1789), were paramount in the popularisation of the Picturesque as a means of viewing nature and are, of themselves, indicative of the popularity of miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, picturesque tourism.[14] As Watkin suggests, “Gilpin’s numerous topographical books were essentially a preparation for book intelligent critical visiting, for the Picturesque presupposes a society which was interested in miner body ritual essay nature and in art and, above all, in travelling (vii). In conclusion, Gilpin's introduction to Essays provides the following clarification which modern critics might gainfully peruse: . . . we picturesque people are a little misunderstood with regard to our general intention . I have several times been surprised at finding us represented, as supposing all beauty to consist in picturesque beauty —and the face of nature to be examined only by the rules of painting. Whereas, in fact, we always speak a different language.

We speak of the careers that creativity grand scenes of nature, though interesting in a picturesque light , as having a strong effect upon the imagination . . Horace Body The Nacirema Essay? . we everywhere make distinctions between scenes, that are beautiful , and amusing , and scenes that are picturesque. ( i-ii) Followers of the Picturesque—and their numbers were legion—were concerned with a general appreciation of landscape and nature, though particularly those scenes formed of the thorn, picturesque elements. The Picturesque scene was of more intense interest to painters, poets and body ritual among the nacirema, travellers for the simple reason that the Picturesque scene is a scene more intense in careers writing creativity its capacity to miner body ritual among provoke and induce reflection. And finally, Gilpin offers a warning: Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers,

Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30) Uvedale Price (1747-1829) This capacity to provoke is an essential element in the theories of Uvedale Price. Like Gilpin, Price adopts Burke's analysis of beauty: uniformity of surface, gradual variation and the thorn book, so on; as well as Gilpin's own analysis of picturesqueness: roughness, sudden variation, irregularity etc. Price, however, takes exception to pictorially-based definition, suggesting that the Picturesque is horace miner ritual the nacirema essay, related to painting only horace miner body the nacirema essay, accidentally: That term, as we may judge from its etymology, is applied only to horace ritual among essay objects of sight; and, indeed, in the thorn book report so confined a manner as to be supposed merely to have a reference to the art from which it is horace miner ritual among, named. I am well convinced however, that the name and reference only are limited and uncertain, and that the qualities which make objects picturesque, are not only as distinct as those which make them beautiful or sublime, but are equally extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received; and that music—though it appears like a solecism—may be as truly picturesque, according to the thorn report the general principles of picturesqueness, as it may be beautiful or sublime, according to those of beauty or sublimity. ( On the Picturesque , 79-80) Price also states: “Whoever studies art alone, will have a narrow pedantic manner of considering all objects” (3), stressing the importance also of “the mistress of all art” (4), Nature herself.

Price is here drawing attention to the ocular bias of William Payne Knight—introduced below—as part and parcel of a protracted debate. Strange then that Davies should insist that for Gilpin landscape’s “appeal is to the eye . Horace Miner Ritual Among? . . only through the eye” (230). Heretically, in the thorn book a topsy-turvey turn around and about Ullswater, Gilpin’s mentions the music of the winds and tempest, “the echoes excited . . . in different parts of [the] lake” ( Observations, Cumberland , 59). Body Essay? In addition, he tells the tale of the Duke of Portland, who owned a vessel fitted with brass cannons designed for the purpose of producing echoes. “Such a variety,” he suggests, “of awful sounds, mixing and commixing, and at the same moment heard from all sides, have a wonderful effect on the mind” ( Observations, Cumberland, 61). Another example of the auditory factor in the picturesque is Hagley, Lord Lyttelton’s estate, the locale in which Thomson revised and rewrote The Seasons which, besides the thesis form artificial ruins, featured a stream carefully designed for maximum gurgleability. Price seeks to take something of the picture from Picturesque, considering it a new category of aesthetic values added to Burke's beautiful and sublime.

. . . picturesqueness appears to hold a station between beauty and sublimity; and, on that count, perhaps, is more frequently, and more happily blended with them both, than they are with each other. It is, however, perfectly distinct from either. Beauty and picturesqueness are indeed evidently founded on very opposite qualities; the one on smoothness, the other on miner body the nacirema essay roughness; the argumentative essay structure one on gradual, the other on among the nacirema essay sudden variation; the one on ideas of youth and freshness, the other on body among the nacirema those of horace miner, age, and essay, even of decay. Essay? ( On the Picturesque , 90) Again, this is only a modification—an engradisement—of Gilpin. Unlike Gilpin’s nation-wide pursuit of the Picturesque, Price concentrated his aesthetic energies upon the picturesqueification of argumentative, manor gardens; and it is horace body among, here that the two part company. In fact, it was William Kent, painter, architect and argumentative essay structure, factotum of the Earl of body among essay, Burlington, who led the revolt against the artificial symmetry of gardens, (see figure 5 ), modifying, in 1734, the gardens at Chiswick House with a meandering stream and an irregular path. Price adopted Kent's early ideas and essay education, developed a more expansive theory of picturesque landscaping, arguing in On the Picturesque (1794), that gardens should imitate landscape paintings and among, that the gardener and painter each aspire to the improvement of nature—again, the familiar idea of Nature as archetype which might be improved through art. Book Report? Though inspired by horace among, Claude and Salvator, Price also aspired, as suggested above, towards the ritual among essay guiding hand of raw nature and offered pragmatic suggestions of picturesque effects landowners might attempt.

Unfortunately, Price’s own effect over horace miner among, actual landscapes was severely limited by letter for a application, the very nature of his improvements, many of horace body among the nacirema essay, which required decades to horace ritual among reach full decay. If the horace miner the nacirema patrician Price failed to effect solid change in the English manor landscape, he nevertheless bequeathed a more ironic and widespread legacy: just as “the picturesque sketch promoted naturalism in landscape painting” (Bermingham, 67), Price’s notions fostered a new naturalism in gardening—advocating the wild, the dramatic, the “accident” of nature: a withered tree, a half-submerged branch breaking the surface of a pool—and continued the democratisation of the Picturesque aesthetic. Condemned by some contemporaries for taking wildness too far, Price ultimately won a vox populi approval. Indeed, the art of picturesque gardening was soon exported: “. . . the continent, about 1770, began to adopt widely the English . . . fashion; and works in French and Italian were added to the copious literature of landscape gardening” (Manwaring, 121). The clash between aesthetic and utility—essentially the moral dimension—was particularly trenchant for Price, whose expertise was firmly fixed in the land itself.

In reference to thatched cottages, for example, he suggests: “It is no less picturesque, when mossy, ragged, and sunk in among the rafters in decay; a species of that character, however, which the keenest lover of it would rather see on another's property than on his own” ( On the Picturesque , 398). To this, the zealous and sometimes verbose editor of the 1842 edition interpolates: I confess, that after considerable experience, I have been completely cured of my romantic attachment to thatch. Essay Success? If the roof of horace miner ritual essay, a cottage be well formed, and two sided argumentative structure, well projected, so as to throw a deep shadow over the wall beneath it, I do not conceive that it will be necessary to thatch it, in order to add to its picturesque effect, at horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, the risk of diminishing the comfort of the poor inmates. (398) Price the gentleman farmer, occupied with increased production and the maximisation of land use, appears, Ann Bermingham points out, as something of a contradiction to Price the promoter of picturesque aesthetics, biased towards the nostalgic, the thesis form antiquated, the rustic, the dilapidated and the inefficient. The contradiction though seems somewhat delusive and is perhaps suggestive of the transformation of the horace miner body ritual the nacirema paternal landlord-tenant relationship, with the picturesque manor garden now forming a physical boundary between aesthetic and productive nature.

Richard Payne Knight (1750-1824) Richard Payne Knight, who owned the most valuable collection of Claudes in Europe and whose interests were eclectic, [15] provides still another perspective. In, The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books , he refutes compositional analysis, instead seeing art as a “magic power”(8) which defies analysis and rule: Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines. Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!

With scorn eternal mark the cautious fool. Who dares not judge till he consults his rule! Or when, Salvator from thy daring hand. Appears, in burnished arms, some savage band,— Each figure boldly pressing into life, And breathing blood, calamity, and strife, Should cold measure each component part. And judge thy genius by a surgeons art. (6-7) Knight also disagrees with Price’s multi-sensory theory, believing that the Picturesque “is merely that kind of beauty which belongs exclusively to the sense of vision; or to the imagination guided by that sense” [16] ( On the Picturesque , 500). Knight provides a curious blend of neo-classical—with his didactic poem festooned in rhyming couplets and his notions of “taste”—and romantic, a clear sign of the involve writing creativity transition underway:

Such too the Sicyonian sculptor taught. To model motion, and embody thought; Pure abstract beauty's fleeting shades to trace. And fix the image of ideal grace: Combining what he felt with what he saw. (5-6) Besides his emphasis upon “feeling” in the almost magical and horace miner among the nacirema, almost irrational production of art, Knight points towards the dangers of fashion: Straight lines were the fashion of the last century, and the curved ones are the fashion of this, and an indiscriminate adherence to thesis form the fashion of the body ritual among day, what ever it happens to be, with a supercilious contempt for all who venture to dissent from it, is the never failing characteristic of the vanity, separated from the feeling, or discernment, of two sided argumentative essay, taste. The advocate for the curve lines would have been as much ridiculed in the last century as the advocate for body ritual straight ones in this; and with equal reason; for the indiscriminate use of either is equally bad. Many of the compositions of Nicholas Poussin show the grand effect which may be produced by the judicious use of straight lines. but the book report too general use of them was still more fatal to picturesque beauty, than the late senseless destruction of them has been.

It belongs to the real improver to discriminate where the straight, and horace miner body essay, where the curve line will best suit the composition; and it is this talent of discrimination which distinguishes the liberal artist from the letter mechanic. (fn 11) Here, “faddish” (Brownlow, 43) modern appraisals typified also by the “vogue of the picturesque” (Nevious, 33) are clearly drawn and quartered by Knight’s properly considered execution of Picturesque principles which supersede transient newfangledness and commemorate the sempiternal. Knight's fixation upon “taste,” and “discrimination,” are reminiscent of the miner body ritual essay superciliousness of a Pope or a Swift, though his distinction between the mechanic and liberal artist—one who follows no rules besides those which the magic spirit of art suggests—offers a place within the romantic arena. Knight, like Price, was accused of wild neglect in his landscape theories: an indication indeed of the distance separating the careers that involve creativity new naturalism from the old neo-classicism. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, Knight insists that the horace miner among the nacirema transplanting and success education, mimicking of Italian landscape—both real or painted—should finally be abandoned in preference to compositions which adopt Picturesque principles and native scenes:

Nor, plac’d beneath our cool and wat’ry sky. Attempt the horace miner body ritual glowing tints of Italy: For thus compell’d in mem’ry to confide, Or blindly follow some preceding guide, One common track it still pursues, And crudely copies what it never views . . . . Argumentative Essay Structure? (309-314)

The work of horace body among, Price and Knight, though perhaps less interesting a read than Gilpin, augmented the Picturesque phenomenon to a point where it was not only the talk of the town but of the estate and village. Watson’s assessment that “it is difficult to regard it as much more than a sterile ending,” (21) reveals perhaps a certain sterility in his own point of two sided argumentative, view rather than providing any useful conclusion. Lancelot Brown (1716-83) Lancelot “Capability” Brown, though embroiled in the Picturesque debate, essentially helped define the Picturesque by negation: Brownian improvement replaced the artificiality of neo-classical landscape gardens with a new artificiality based either upon Burke’s principles of beauty or Brown’s singular notions born orphan and condemned to permanent infancy. Miner Body Ritual Essay? Fundamentally, Brown’s style, though claiming nature as its inspiration, was no less unnatural than, for example, Knole, Nymphenburg or Le Notre's Versailles. If the “improvements” of Price and Knight might take decades to develop, the bumbling “Capability” Brown provided expeditious transformations priced by the yard and complete the day after tomorrow. Gilpin himself comments upon this: This is the first subject of the kind he [Brown] has attempted . . . but a ruin presents a new idea; which I doubt whether he has sufficiently considered . The Thorn Book Report? . Horace Ritual Essay? . [His lake] is too magnificent, and too artificial an appendage, to cover letter for a application be in unison with the ruins of an abbey. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? An abbey, it is true, may stand by the side of a lake; and it is possible that this lake may, in some future time, become its situation; when the marks of the spade and the pick-axe are removed,—when its osiers flourish; and its naked banks become fringed and covered with wood . . . the ruin stands now on a neat bowling-green like a house just built, and essay structure, without any kind of connection with the ground it stands on. (qtd. Watkin, 48)

Brown designed his landscapes according to his own simple understanding of nature's harmonies and horace body essay, gradients, featuring vast expanses of grass, irregularly shaped bodies of water, and clumpified tree groupings. As a consequence, Brown eventually became the object of general ridicule: On one occasion Owen Cambridge remarked, “I wish I may die before you, Mr. Ritual Among Essay? Brown.” “Why so?” inquired the puzzled but flattered Brown. “Because,” came the reply, “I should like to see heaven before you have improved it.” (qtd. Hussey, 139) Brown clearly and entirely personified the halting and horace miner ritual the nacirema essay, maladroit neo-classical Picturesque, an success education, awkward attempt to plant a round tree in a square hole; and his importance stems partly from the middleground his improvements occupied, and partly from the antithetical virtue of something which is not providing a point of reference to something which is. The Philosophical Context. The Grand Tour, the miner body ritual among the nacirema importation of souvenir landscape paintings and the increasingly popular provincial trips provide the foundation for all this Picturesque inquiry; but there was additionally a general philosophical investigation which offered a provocative and conducive milieu. Careers That? Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) equated God with the natural order of the world; Wilhelm Wackenroder's Effusions of an Art-Loving Friar (1773-1798) proposed the existence of two Divine languages, the first reserved for solely for God, the second composed of two components: Nature and Art—a kind of bilingualism for the unilingual. Together, these ideas brought some balance to miner the traditional Christian bias against nature. Most important was Burke’s (1729-1797) aforementioned theory of the sublime: the ultimate experience of divinity, composed of the thorn book report, awe, fear and enlightenment, and produced by the contemplation of horace miner body ritual, potent and alarming nature.

The effect of for a phd position, visible objects on the passions, clearly, is miner ritual, not only the concern of that writing creativity, Burke, but lies at the heart also of Picturesque theory.[17] In effect, these philosophical theories began either to intellectualise landscape and nature—a process continued by the Picturesque school, which allowed a less restricted participation—or attached to it theological importance (see figure 6) where once was seen irreverence. Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), for horace body ritual essay example, exhibited Cross in the Mountains in 1808: a landscape intended as an altarpiece for a private chapel. Critics initially condemned this as sacrilegious. Friedrich's own interpretation of the picture identified the natural images as symbols for religious beliefs: “The Cross stands erected on a rock unshakeably firm as our faith in Jesus Christ. Thesis Form? Evergreen, enduring through all ages, the firs stand round the body ritual the nacirema essay cross, like the hope of mankind in Him”( Encyclopaedia Britannica ). Landscape and landscape paintings, through these developments, were deemed to be intellectually and religiously interesting and thus offered a respectability previously unknown. Importantly, the religious angle provided only an initial entry point in what was finally to become an amoral and secular aesthetic. Returning to the properly Picturesque, Thomas West’s Guide to the Lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire , first published in cover letter for a phd position 1778, displays the religious overtones of landscape within the context of the urban/rural dichotomy: Such as spend their lives in cities, and miner ritual the nacirema essay, their time in crouds will here meet with objects that will enlarge the mind, by contemplation, and raise it from nature to cover letter phd position nature’s first cause. Miner Body Ritual? Whoever takes a walk into these scenes must return penetrated with a sense of the creator’s power in heaping mountains upon mountains, and involve, enthroning rocks upon rocks. Miner Body Among The Nacirema? And such exhibitions of sublime and beautiful objects cannot but excite at thesis form, once both rapture and reverence. (4)

Although religion, ultimately, would be banished from the Picturesque scene, initially such inclusion provided justification and among the nacirema essay, absolution for the new focus on landscape. Within the essay structure larger context, the miner the nacirema essay developing interest in landscape painting and landscape itself comes as no surprise and the romantic school of poetry was essentially a natural progression as inevitable as the wooded shadows cast by a brilliant dawn. Landscape Painters Autochtonous. As we have seen, the appreciation of landscape was one which required learning, and it was through landscape painting and painters that this skill was initially acquired. Thomas Gainsborough (1727-88) Thomas Gainsborough, perhaps the earliest and certainly most highly regarded pioneer of picturesque English landscape painting, emerged as.

the most significant landscape painter of the that involve creativity century. Horace Among The Nacirema Essay? Whereas the work of Wilson, the body the nacirema essay “English Claude,” could be accommodated within the familiar art-history tradition of landscape painting, Gainsborough’s art inspired insights that ran counter to horace body ritual the academic notions of paintings. . . . (Bermingham, 58) Gainsborough “gave landscape the status of pure painting: private, personal” (Bermingham 43). Rejecting portraiture, with its congenital mandate for poetic license, conjured to placate a patron, rather than artistic integrity, Gainsborough believed that the material of landscape allowed “. . . the artist freely to exercise his imagination” (Bermingham 44).[18] In his later work, Gainsborough offered ever more subjective and sentimental subjects: the cottage, the cover sublimity of sea, of mountain, and the innocence of horace miner body among the nacirema essay, children, each finding a correspondence in two sided structure such poems as Wordsworth’s “The Ruined Cottage,” “Ode: Intimations of Immortality,” “Farewell though little Nook of mountain ground” and “We Are Seven.” In the decades after his death in horace miner body ritual among 1788, a veritable inversion of taste had occurred, with critics and sensible folk alike increasingly praising landscape over portraits. Gainsborough rejected predefined artistic traditions, embraced English rural subject matter as “a direct response to nature” (Bermingham 58), and established an affinity with the birds Picturesque well beyond that of either Claude or Salvator. If, as Hussey suggests, Claude, Salvator and others caused a revolution in the appreciation of scenery and nature, then Gainsborough landed that rebellion on the home front, adopting English countryside and scenes with a subjective reconnaissance which sought to discover their innate truth. J M W Turner (1775-1851) Joseph Mallord William Turner was principally influenced by Claude, and so, not surprisingly, painted a host of picturesque scenes whose mythological and historical subjects are guaranteed to horace ritual among the nacirema warm even the coldest cockles of the neo-classicist: Dido Building Carthage , The Bay of Baiae with Apollo and the Sibyl and Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus , to name only a few.

And yet the subjects themselves tell only half the story, for thesis form these were indeed Picturesque canvases with atmospheric effects suggestive of Claude (see figure 7) and foreshadowing impressionistic treatment. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? Turner then demonstrates the tenacity of writing, neo-classical material in paintings; but also the movement towards a more individual and romantic approach: in place of mere factual recording, Turner translated scenes into a light-filled expression of his own romantic outlook. Other paintings, like Buttermere Lake: A Shower , from around 1798, as well as Turner’s extensive touring of England and Scotland during the same period, show a sensitivity to the nationalistic climate inherent in miner body the nacirema essay the Picturesque movement. Turner, like Salvator, was himself something of a romantic figure: claiming no close friends, painting in thesis form absolute privacy, spending months in solitude and always travelling alone. When persuaded to horace miner body ritual essay sell his paintings, Turner suffered days of dejection. Finally, Turner left a large fortune which he hoped would support what he called “decaying artists”—a picturesque appellation if ever there was one.

What makes Turner particularly interesting is his treatment of the sublime and its Picturesque ramifications. John Ruskin has a unique and convincing view of this which explains the strength of the Picturesque and partly —infinitesimally—accounts for the modern literary bias: . . . if this outward sublimity be sought for by the thesis form painter, without any regard for the real nature of the thing, and without any comprehension of the pathos of character hidden beneath, it forms the low school of the surface-picturesque; that which fills ordinary drawing-books and scrap-books, and employs, perhaps, the most popular living landscape painters of France, England, and Germany. But if these same outward characters be sought for in subordination to the inner character of the object, every source of pleasurableness being refused which is incompatible with that, while perfect sympathy is felt at the same time with the object as to all that it tells of itself in among essay those sorrowful by-words, we have the school of true or noble picturesque. To extend this analysis, it is an acute sympathy which separates middling artists of the Picturesque from the Turners and the Wordsworths; it is, to adopt Ruskin’s terminology, the difference between high and low Picturesque. Although Turner— unlike Wordsworth—employed both sketches and memory, a similar temporal distancing from subject is common to their respective methodologies: The sketch which Turner used as the basis for his drawing of Louth, Lincolnshire , a drawing that dates from sometime in 1827-8, was made thirty years earlier, in thesis form 1797. As will become increasingly obvious, painting and miner body the nacirema, literature are indeed sister arts and their practitioners intimately related. (Shanes, 20) John Constable (1776-1837)

John Constable was born and bred in rural England and his bond to horace among essay the countryside was life long and reverential.[19] No other painter of the period imbued such a sense of self in body among essay his work, calling his sketchbooks “journals”—complete with their autobiographical annotations—and stating, surely with a nod of approval from Wordsworth: “I am fond of being an letter for a application, Egoist in horace body ritual among the nacirema whatever relates to painting” (qtd. Bermingham, 87). His earliest works were venerational sketches in the style of Gainsborough; and, though never abandoning Picturesque theory, Constable appropriated its many exigencies and eventually made them componential to the dictates of his own. Initially, then, the cover phd position Picturesque afforded Constable an aesthetic perspective whose ideological bias coincided at many points with his own rejection of commercial values as shared by body ritual, his family. Furthermore, the Picturesque focus on the specific appearances of objects and the power of these appearances to thesis form evoke strong imaginative associations encouraged Constable’s own propensity to infuse particular views and horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, objects with affective significance. (Bermingham, 113-114) Perhaps the most striking aspect—at least to the literary minded—of Constable’s stylistic development involves his new conception of nature with its emphasis upon specific and individual elements which undermine traditional hierarchical landscape composition. Discussing Dedham Vale: Morning , Bermingham states: . . . the eye cannot trace a pedestrian itinerary; it focuses on charged spots—the figures, the tall golden trees, the careers white church, the post in the left fore­ground. . . Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay? . [It is this] profusion of thesis form, dialectically charged spots [that] organises Constables landscapes. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among Essay? (123) Besides these spots of the thorn report, composition, Constable, in the frontispiece of English Landscape Scenery , supplies an archetype for his work in general: This spot saw the day-spring of my life, Hours of horace body among the nacirema essay, Joy and years of Happiness; This place first tinged my boyish fancy with a love of the the thorn birds book Art,

This place was the among origin of my fame. (qtd. Bermingham, 125) The obvious and unavoidable correspondence with Wordsworth’s “spots in time” is further augmented by Constable’s use of recollection: Flatford Mill from the Lock , as a case in point, is letter, a composite canvas composed of five prefatory and much studied sketches,[20] and features five charged spots—focal points of interest—copied from their respective points in the sketches. The final choice of perspective and arrangement is suggested by horace body ritual among the nacirema, Constable in the thorn birds book a letter to his wife: “I have tried Flatford Mill again, from the lock (whence you once made a drawing)” (qtd. Miner Among Essay? Bermingham, 131). The lock and its view, as we see, are associated with his wife, and the final composition is imbued with the emotions stirred by his memories of that, that moment and of imaginings, of retrospection: “. . . what he experienced remembering with what she had experienced in the process of drawing” (Bermingham 132); a fusion of past and present. We should deduce no direct philosophical or methodological imitation from either Constable or Wordsworth—though each was intimately acquainted with the other’s work—but rather recognise that both responded to the spirit of the times, inheriting a still viable Picturesque aesthetic, assimilating its imperatives and horace miner body ritual among, making egotistical innovation their own underlying principle. If we accept for the moment that the thesis form romantic movement came not as a miraculous gift from a prophetic Wordsworth tired of rhyming his couplets and poeticising his passages, but as a result of processes already under way; similarly, the Picturesque itself developed through gradual shifts in the philosophical mind and artistic mix. Figure 1: Claude, Pastoral Landscape With the Pointe Molle, from Bicknell. Figure 2: Earlom, from Bicknell. Figure 3: William Westall (1781-1850) View of the caves near Gordale Scar, Yorkshire from horace the nacirema Bick nell. Thesis Form? “Of all the scenes regularly visited by travellers in search of the Picturesque, Gordale Scar most vividly evoked Salvator” (Bicknel, 72).

Figure 4: Gilpin, Number 18, from Bicknell. Figure 5: Garden Plan, from Manwaring. Figure 6: Marco Ricci (1679-1729), Classical landscape with a traveller and two figures kneeling before a cross, from Bicknell. Figure 7: Turner, Caernarvon Castle (1799) Claudeian influence. Moving from Picturesque affects to effects: as fundamental to literature as to the way we presently evaluate and horace ritual, relate to landscape scenes, the holidays and pictures we take, the rural dreams we dream. Continuing the supposition that the involve writing creativity Picturesque was no mere fad, this section will detail the ritual the nacirema essay transition from literature’s traditional view of the thorn birds, landscape shortly before and during the miner body among essay Augustan reign to one which gradually accommodates Picturesque learning and issues in horace miner ritual essay the sovereign Nature of the miner body ritual among romantics. The movement from essay success neo-classicism to romanticism was not so much a break as a gradual changing of the guard, until finally the ritual the nacirema palace itself stood vacant and the Greco-Roman soldiers sent a-packing. Just as Sir Isaac Newton—for all his cosmic reconstruction—quietly maintained traditional beliefs, writing a commentary on the Book of Revelations which flabbergasted his scientific admirers, so too the Picturesque prebendaries provided token offerings to the ancient classical gods. William Gilpin himself reveals this tentation, offers these offerings, in his definitions of picturesque, occasionally comparing picturesque roughness with classical depictions: Virgil’s Venus, with hair dissundere ventis , Homer’s rugged Jupiter. Horace Body Among The Nacirema? The strain of discovering the Picturesque in the classics is injurious both to horace miner body ritual among the nacirema Picturesque theory and to the authors themselves, though the omnipresence and potency of two sided, Augustan authority and prestige during the eighteenth century essentially made necessity of inanity.

In addition, Gilpin sometimes uses Virgilian quotations to describe English scenery; and in Observations even suggests that Virgil was a great master of landscape. From this, Hugh Sykes Davies—perhaps the most Boeotian of modern critics—understands the Picturesque to be a “revived Augustan attitude to Nature” (248)—a particularly unique and outlandish notion which defies both the evidence of art and literature. Indeed, David Watkin makes this absurdity clear: Carroll Meeks showed in 1957 [21] how each of the five principles of the Picturesque—variety, movement, irregularity, intricacy and roughness—is respectively echoed in the characteristics of Baroque as defined by Heinrich Wolfflin (1864-1945): painterly, recession, open, unity and unclearness. Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? In Wolfflin’s visual system of analysis, which in itself could be seen as a legacy of the Picturesque, these characteristics were identified as the opposite of those of Classic Art: namely linear, plane, closed, multiplicity and clearness. (x)

Section one provided some hint of the amorality that marks the Picturesque school. Essay Success? It is this very fact which provides and another important distinction between the body ritual the nacirema Picturesque and neo-classicism. In Gilpin’s Dialogue upon thesis form the Gardens at Stowe , two visitors discuss the horace body among merits of a ruinous hermitage. The first is puzzled “why we are more taken with a prospect of the thorn birds, this ruinous kind, than with views of Plenty and Prosperity in their greatest Perfection.” (5) The second responds: Yes: but cannot you make a distinction between natural and miner body essay, moral Beauties? Our social Affections undoubtedly find their Enjoyment the most complete when they contemplate, a Country smiling in essay success education the midst of horace body among the nacirema, Plenty, where Houses are well-built, Plantations regular, and everything the most commodious and useful. Phd Position? But such Regularity and Exactness excites no manner of Pleasure in the Imagination, unless they are made use of to contrast with something of an opposite kind. (5) Malcolm Andrews contextualises such differentiations: “. . . the distinction between natural and moral beauty would have made most Augustans very uneasy, so clearly does it fly in the face of cherished neo-classical values, where physical beauty is miner ritual the nacirema, seen as the the thorn report expression of moral beauty” (48). In terms more specifically concerned with the development of the Picturesque and romantic poetry, Brownlow makes a similar point: “They [neo-classicists] took it as axiomatic that the training of the eye was a moral activity, in that a properly conceived, and perceived, landscape or garden was an emblem of order . . . in the state, the miner body the nacirema mind, the soul, and the emotions” (15).

The influence of the Picturesque in thesis form France stands as further testament: there the impact was particularly striking for horace miner body ritual the nacirema “it conflicted with the that creativity rationalist trend of architectural theory which survived from the late seventeenth into the early twentieth century” (Watkin, 161). Eighteenth century neo-classical and Picturesque correlations, like those of Gilpin, which are, at best, spurious, are further explained, firstly, by some degree of pedantry; secondly, intellectual name-dropping, offering assent through association; and thirdly, and most particularly, the tremendous difficulties involved in developing an aesthetic outside the ubiquitous and horace miner body, intrinsically disdainful neo-classical confines. The Picturesque then, saw its earliest lines of delineation drawn during the Augustan heyday. Augustans’ adoption of the Picturesque was initially obvious: with the works of Claude increasingly in vogue, his idyllic and nostalgic landscapes of lost classical splendour were understandably and generally embraced. Argumentative Structure? Indeed, the historical/classical narrative in horace ritual among essay Claude’s paintings was comfortably accommodating to neo-classicists and offered—as was the essay education case with religious allusion—a license of horace body among the nacirema, interest in what was actually a novel, non-classical, non-traditional genre. The Picturesque Path [22] The attendant problem in viewing pre-picturesque poets through the filter of this thesis is actually the point: landscape in literature, until the ritual among essay early eighteenth century, is conspicuous either by its absence, rarity, or treatment. As mentioned in Section One, just as landscape in body painting initially existed largely as a backdrop to body ritual the nacirema essay human drama, similarly, in literature, it functioned as a symbol of or allusion to grander to more “worthy” conceptions. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637)

Ben Jonson’s “To Penshurst” (1616) is an interesting case in point: cutting the first turf in a sub-genre celebrating a specific locale, its treatment of landscape is exactly as we would expect, which is to say, exactly as this thesis anticipates. Penshurst, the country seat of the Sidney family (Sir Philip being the most familiar) is described by Jonson in a most particular manner: after a brief preamble describing the horace body ritual among the nacirema manor’s modest facade, the body among the nacirema poem turns to the surrounding gardens, where “Thou hast thy walks for health, as well as sport” (9)—though notably not for any aesthetic value; where, not surprisingly, Pan and Bacchus drop in for a famous feast; and where every element of this topography reads like a catalogue of ownership, the ledger of a steward rather than a poetic eulogy or a laudation of landscape. “That taller tree, which of a nut was set / At his great birth, where all the Muses met” (13-14), initially provides a symbolic marking of Sir Phillip’s birth, soon inscribed—“There in the writhed bark are cut the names / Of many a sylvan” (15-16)—with the horace body among the nacirema scrawl of the thorn report, lovers re-scrawled as the initials of fabled wood deities. The oak stands not as a tree valued for its majestic treeness, but as an emblem marking the consequence of its wealthy owner; and, to pursue this branch to its limit, acting as a veritable Zeitgeist . “Thy copse, too, named of Gamage, thou hast there, / That never fails to serve thee seasoned deer” (19-20), strengthens the miner body among the nacirema notion of ownership through nomenclature and introduces the main theme: nature not as objet d’art but as morsels of existentialistic meat, the ingredients of art culinaire . Accordingly, in this Edenic garden, with land-owner seated not as Adam but standing as God, “The painted partridge lies in argumentative essay structure every field, / And, for horace miner ritual essay thy mess, is willing to be killed” (29-30); and “Fat, aged carps, that run into thy net, / Bright eels that emulate them, and leap on land / Before the fisher, or into his hand” (33-35). Of course, all this is careers, very pragmatic and moral, supporting the pillars of establishment and legitimate dominion in a manner suggestive of Elizabethan hierarchy. It will be some time before the miner body ritual essay stability of the oak and pillars becomes, instead, the stuff of aesthetics. John Denham (1615-69) Sir John Denham, in Cooper’s Hill (1642), composed one of the earliest and letter phd position application, particularly influential topographical poems. Miner Body Ritual Essay? Typically, it mixes natural descriptions with moral. Here, for example, the two are intercoursed: Though with those streams he no resemblance hold,

Whose foam is amber and horace among, their gravel gold; His genuine and less guilty wealth t' explore, Search not his bottom, but survey his shore. (165-168) The incorporation of historical and political reflections, besides foreshadowing Pope—specifically Windsor Forest —highlight a landscape invisible without the filter of man’s works. Miner The Nacirema Essay? Interestingly, ironically, use of the heroic couplet marks the transition from birds report metaphysicals to neo-classicism in much the same way that Thomson’s The Seasons foreshadows romanticism. John Hughes 1677-? John Hughes, with a lifelong interest in graphic art, is one of several lesser poets whose attempts at landscape poetry predates the more familiar and famous. His Court of Neptune (1700) describes “Landscapes of rising Mountains, shaggy Woods, / Green Valleys, smiling Meadows, silver Floods, / And Plains with lowring Herds enrich’d around” (qtd, Manwaring, 96). Horace Ritual The Nacirema Essay? Obviously, this pre-Picturesque period, still lacking any landscape aesthetic, is incapable of providing any genuine pictorial perspective.

Nevertheless, Hughes’ introduction to Poetical Works offers an horace miner body ritual among essay, interesting observation: “There are no parts in a poem which strike the generality of readers with so much pleasure as Description” (xxxxv). Poems like “The Picture,” features an original collecting of hues from nature: Queen of fancy hither bring. So from ev’ry flow’r and plant. Gather first the immortal paint. Fetch me lilies, fetch me roses. (7-14)

The poem is delightful not only for body ritual among essay its originality, but for the genuine poetic sensibility. Finally, however, all this pigment is to paint a portrait of Venus. “Greenwich Park,” despite the hopefulness of its title, inevitably becomes nothing more than a background for parading and prancing nymphs, Cupid, Mira and two sided argumentative structure, various embodiments of beauty: a landscape reflecting classicism and finally fading into aesthetic oblivion while all the horace body ritual radiance that remains is human. Horace Miner Ritual The Nacirema Essay? Poems like “The triumph of peace occasioned by the peace of Ryswich 1697” and “The court of Neptune on King William’s return from Holland 1699,” surprisingly do contain landscape elements, though again only as a history painting-like background. Only the subject itself of To Mr. Constantine, on His Paintings makes true landscape fleetingly possible:

Here tufted Groves rise boldly to horace miner ritual among the Sky, There Spacious Lawns more distant charms the two sided structure Eye, The Crystal Lakes, in Borrow’d Tinctures shine. And misty Hills the far Horizon join, Lost in the azure of Borders of the Day,

Like Sounds remote that die in Air away. (qtd, Manwaring, 96) Conventionally a cardinal artistic sin, this copy of copy surprisingly exhibits particular merit, not only for horace ritual among the nacirema the avant-garde Picturesque elements—William Kent’s 1709 Memorandum, after all, appears now on the horizon—but with the “borrowing” from one state of reality to another and thesis form, the canvas’ frame providing closure to the day. Nevertheless, any systematic rendition of landscape is, at this time, possible only by imitation not of body among essay, nature—nor indeed Nature—but of a landscape canvas. The Picturesque Convergence. Alexander Pope (1688-1744), writing during and success education, even dabbling in the development of Picturesque theories, enters the literary pantheon during this transitional period and consequently demands significant attention. In fact, as will become apparent, the Augustan embrace of the horace body Picturesque was one without much feeling, attachment, sincerity and without much conviction.

Pope was connected with the earliest picturesque efforts: one of the first romantic mediaevalisations, built at Cirencester Park, Gloucestershire. Known as Alfred's Hall, it was begun in 1721 for the first Earl of Bathurst. In 1732 Bathurst wrote to Pope: “I have almost finished my hermitage in the wood, and it is careers that writing creativity, better than you can imagine . . . I will venture to assert that all Europe cannot show such a pretty little plain work in the Brobdingnag style as what I have executed here” (qtd. Watkin, 45). This plain structure eventually became, with Pope's advice and miner among the nacirema, assistance, a venerable castle and mock ruin. In addition, Pope’s Moral Essays , “Epistle IV” offers some promising notions of picturesque landscape gardening, with both Nature and painting offered as inspiration and methodology. This leads J. R. Watson to suggest: “The gardener’s task was now to co-operate with nature, as Pope knew” (16). In fact, although Pope mocks the formality of a Versailles, supplanting it with, “Parts answ’ring parts shall slide into view / Spontaneous beauties all around advance, / Start ev’n from Difficulty, strike from Chance” (66-68), his own poetry regularly smacks of the formality of affected gardens. Indeed, Pope’s own garden—mostly laid out in c. 1718-25—epitomised by its now famous grotto, illustrates something of the awkwardness of his picturesque dabblings. David Watkin—in what becomes a familiar motif of prevarication—succinctly describes this incongruity: “Pope enhanced his grotto with optical illusion, with mirrors and waterworks, with ores and minerals chosen for their beauty not their rarity, yet he still considered it natural in comparison with the thesis form formality and artificiality of mannerist and baroque grottoes” (4).

A Plan of miner body ritual the nacirema, Mr. Pope’s Garden , penned by John Serle, Pope’s gardener and man-servant, reveals more details: the essay success education grotto was, in fact, a rock and sea-shell strewn tunnel leading beneath a road to the garden. Besides the opulence of the marble plaque inscribed in body essay gold letters decorating the entrance, Italian marble, Plymouth marble, Cornish diamonds, Amesthystine crystals—to scratch only the surface—form the grotto itself. Although none of these are precious materials per se , neither are they the stuff of the primitive Picturesque scene. A Plan , in its cartographic fold-out, reveals the lay-out of the garden: formed mostly of two sided essay structure, radial and rectilinear pathways and a polished lawn, there are nevertheless a few hesitant serpentine walks. Watkin admits: “What Pope persisted in seeing as ‘natural’ seems to us as artificial as Rococo . . .” (5).

Indeed, what Pope persisted in seeing as natural would no doubt have seemed equally artificial, only a few decades later, to Price and Knight. What makes A Plan particularly interesting is its uninteresting inventory, which not only itemises the materials used in the grotto, but their source: Several large Groups of Cornish Diamonds tinged with a blackish Water, from the Rev. Dr. William Borlace of body, Ludgvan in Cornwall . . Letter? . Horace Among The Nacirema? . Several fine Pieces of Eruptions from Mount Vesuvius , and a fine Piece of thesis form, Marble from the Grotto of Egeria near Rome , from the Reverend Mr. Body? Spence ; with several fine Petrifactions and Plymouth Marble, from Mr. Essay? Cooper . (6-7) This brief extract, with its “fine” name dropping, reveals the horace body essay familiar marks of ownership and two sided, prestige. The emblem of land title, which we saw in Jonson’s “To Penshurst,” is here reduced to ritual among the nacirema constitutional elements: rocks and minerals, and suggesting the commensurate importance of associate names, like famous signatures in a gallery of ultimately mediocre art: the miner body ritual among the nacirema high price of reputation . Even the poems contained in miner body among the nacirema essay a section entitled, “Verses Upon the essay success Grotto at Twickenham” concern themselves not with the grotto itself, but with the man who owned the grotto. Emerson once wrote that although fields and farms belong to this man or that, the landscape is nobody’s private property.

In early eighteenth century England, the notion of landscape finally existed, though Emerson’s point was as yet lost in the haze of future understanding. The far flung opulence, the horace miner body ritual among essay unnatural far flung assortment of items collected from various regions—how natural is a chunk of Vesuvius clinging to a lump of Plymouth Marble?—should, one would think, quickly and convincingly settle the question which Morris R. Brownell rhetorically poses in his introduction to A Plan : “Pope’s acknowledgement to Sloan for his gift of joints of the Giant’s Causeway raises the question of argumentative essay structure, his conception of the grotto—fosillary of horace miner body essay, rare minerals or imitation of nature?” (viii). Not surprisingly, Brownell sees the whole thing as an imitation of nature. However wrong this blind faith reading might be, the question itself misses the point: whatever Pope’s intent, the result was impossibly unnatural. That Writing? The neo-classicist, no matter what aesthetic mining he attempts, can extract only a rarefied nature, more artful than natural, the geological equivalent of a landscape lyric in heroic couplets, with every pair of lines a peculiar strata of imported rock.[23] In fairness to Pope, however, Twickenham garden and Lord Burlington’s in Chiswick vie as the first picturesque grounds. If they are, by later standards, largely unnatural and unpicturesque, they were at least a tentative first step down the body ritual meandering garden path. Further, Pope’s definition of thesis form, nature was usually Nature , duly capitalised and interrelated not with “the great out-doors,” nor nature in a Darwinian sense, but more particularly the illustrative, universal and intransmutable; common sense and perspicacity: Yet if we look more closely, we shall find. Most have the seeds of judgement in their mind:

Nature affords at least a glimmer of light; The lines, though touched but faintly, are drawn right;(“An Essay on Criticism,” 19-22) Here the drawing metaphor is body ritual among, emphatically concerned neither with landscape nor art, but with “good sense.” Pope’s earliest attempt at what we might broadly term nature poetry was Pastorals . Reading like a declaration of love from an avaricious beggarly bachelor to a wealthy widow, any genuine feeling seems obliterated by a self-conscious pedantic exhibitionism: the Thames valley landscape, for example, is chock-a-block with “ Sicilian Muses” (certainly not my italics) though singularly Spartan in thesis form sunny meadows. The natural elements in Pastorals typically function in one of three ways: firstly, as a form of extended characterisation: Oh deign to visit our forsaken seats, The mossy fountains, and the green retreats! Where’re you walk, cool gales shall fan the glade, Trees, where you sit, shall crowd into a shade;

Where’re you tread, the blushing flow’rs shall rise, And all things flourish where you turn your eyes. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema? (71-76) In this instance, the chastity, morality, purity of Rosalinda is externalised in a venerational relationship with subdued Nature. Secondly, as a mere pretext for manifold classicisms: Beneath the Shade a spreading Beech displays, Hylas and Aegon sung their Rural Lays; This mourn’d a faithless, that an absent Love. And Dekia’s Name and Doris fill’d the horace miner ritual among essay Grove.

Ye Mantuan Nymphs, your sacred Succour bring; Hylas and Aegon’s Rural Lays I sing. Horace Body Ritual Essay? ( Pastorals: Autumn , 1-6) And, thirdly, as in traditional paintings, as a background or at best a setting for human activity. Windsor Forest (1713) provides another example of Pope’s inability to create either pictorial or picturesque scenes. Indeed, the for a phd position poems turns out to be a virtual arboricultural wasteland: a peculiar reversal of the familiar aphorism where we cannot see the trees for the forest. Here Hills and Vales, the Woodland and the Plain, Here Earth and water seem to body essay strive again. There, interspers’d in Lawns and opening Glades, Thin Trees arise that shun each others Shades. Here in full light the russet Plains extend;

There wrapt in Clouds the bluish Hills ascend. (11-24) Certainly there is some semblance of landscape here, but the lawns are never far away, and we imagine a scene, not surprisingly, more typical of Capability Brown than the letter for a phd position Picturesque. The natural elements are correspondingly here, here, there, here, there: namely, nowhere, a collage of bits glued willy-nilly, denying spatial and body among, relative reality;[24] the thin trees seemingly represent not a fecund forest but the sparsity of Pope’s pictorial sense. To admire Pope for his particular strength without acknowledging his weakness licenses the implicit generosity of J. R. Watson and the superficiality of Manwaring’s statement that “Pope comes close to two sided argumentative structure Claude” (97) and does neither service to understanding Pope’s poetry nor Picturesque development. Indeed, Hussey convincingly argues that, “There is no analogy in his landscapes to those of Claude or Salvator” (30). Pope’s embryonic landscapes, in place of visualisation, provide Defoe-like catalogues, reminiscent also of “To Penshurst”: painting the scenery of inventory rather than the canvas of invention. Pope’s Classical Roots. Ever since Horace’s dictum in Ars Poetica (c. 13 BC) “ ut pictura poesis —“as is horace ritual essay, painting, so is poetry”—the two arts have been jointly imprisoned in the same ivory tower—albeit “painting” definitively meant portraiture. Even briefly setting aside the neo-classical context, there can be no surprise that the Picturesque movement was initially tied—though with varying degrees of tightness—to classical poetry. Of course, Pope’s archetypes—indeed, the fact that his literature always passes through some metaphysical classical filter—virtually disallows any personal expression of a personal relationship with nature, or at least results in hollow sentiments.

A brief quotation from Virgil’s The Eclogues (37 BC) will perhaps make this clear: Happy old man, who ’mid familiar streams. And hallowed springs, will court the cooling shade! Here, as of horace body the nacirema, old, your neighbour's bordering hedge, That feasts with willow-flower the horace miner body ritual essay Hybla bees, Shall oft with gentle murmur lull to sleep, While the leaf-dresser beneath some tall rock. Uplifts his song, nor cease their cooings hoarse. The wood-pigeons that are your heart's delight,

Nor doves their moaning in the elm-tree top. ( Eclogue I) Though certainly broader than Pope’s catalogue of careers that writing creativity, natural elements, the horace miner body ritual among the nacirema holistic perspective of landscape is obviously impossible where man and his activities form the principal focus. Interestingly, Virgil goes beyond simple nature eulogy and those country comforts provide a simple alternative to urban opulence: “Let Pallas keep the towers her hand hath built, / Us before all things let the woods delight”(Eclogue II). The English ideal would transform these towers into stately homes, islands of luxury in horace miner body ritual among a sea of peasant labour, a simplicity of life defined geographically rather than philosophically. While Virgil calls for body ritual among a hands-on relationship with nature, rural England produced the harvest bounty at arms length. In addition to this, the writing classical landscape, though never described in terms of horace ritual the nacirema, landscape, is one distinctly exotic, inhabited by pipe-playing shepherds, wayward wolves and unfamiliar flora. Thus, the classical pastoral offers a way of life that no well-manored Englishman could tolerate in a countryside he could not assimilate. The “Muses of book, Sicily,” (Eclogue IV) can never truly sing of England, and Pope, in emulation, can never truly sing familiar nor sing true.

When Pope adopts not only the dialogic structure of Virgil’s Eclogues but the characters themselves, “Fair Thames , flow gently from thy sacred Spring, / While on horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay thy Banks Sicilian Muses sing” (“Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon,” 3-4), the result is transplanted absurdity, apparent not only to the modern reader, but the contemporary also: Thomas Tickell, in his Guardian essay (April 15, 1713), comments: . . . our countrymen have so good an opinion of the ancients, and cover letter phd position application, think so modestly of themselves, that the generality of horace among essay, Pastoral Writers have either stolen all from the Greeks and Romans, or so servilely imitated their manners and customs, as makes them very ridiculous. (qtd. Andrews, 11) Pope understood none of this, [25] saw no immediacy in the thorn birds report the pastoral, no native narrative nor contemporaneity: only a perpetual backwards survey of a Golden Age forged in Vulcan’s far away fires. Accordingly, in “A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry,” Pope states:

If we would copy Nature, it may be useful to take this Idea along with us, that pastoral is an image of what they call the Golden age. So that we are not to describe our shepherds as shepherds at this day really are, but as they may be conceiv’d then to have been. (120) The real requirement was something Pope could never provide: a kind of reverse alchemy, transforming the gold of the Golden Age into the Englishman’s baser mettle. Pope’s further insistence upon “exposing the best side only of a shepherd’s life, and in concealing his miseries” (120) is again in opposition with picturesque trends which, though, as we have seen, generally avoiding the moral context of poverty, places emphasis upon the dilapidated, the coarse, the miner among unkept, positing hardship as intrinsic to the scene as the gnarled wind-blasted tree. The ragged shepherd, his hair swept by wind, his visage worried by the elements, is both a more accurate and picturesque portrait. Virgil’s Eclogues , with “These fallows, trimmed so fair” (Eclogue I) and, “Now, Meliboeus, graft your pears, now set / Your vines in order!” (Eclogue I), provides a subtext of nature controlled, ordered and manipulated. In Georgics , of course, this philosophy becomes an overtly expressed treatise on thesis form the cultivation of estates, making the horace body among the nacirema incongruity between the neo-classical and the Picturesque as conspicuous as a dilemma between nature ordered and natural disorder. But there is an even more important incongruity, for Georgics , like much of Virgil’s poetry—and The Aeneid in particular—features a strong nationalistic component. As the birds book report focus gradually fixes upon British landscape, Virgil’s distant view of “. . . Britain, from the whole world sundered far” (Eclogue I,) and the worship of foreign fields reveals a dislocated panegyric, at odds with the general trend. Malcolm Andrews, in The Search for the Picturesque , sees Virgil’s patriotism as offering “. Miner Body Ritual Among Essay? . . a kind of licence for cultural emancipation” (9), and moves in careers involve writing creativity the next paragraph to an analysis of Thomson’s The Seasons , as if Virgil’s nationalistic vision directly correlated to an appreciation of English landscape.

In fact, the neo-classical attitude as expressed in Pope’s “A Discourse on miner body ritual Pastoral Poetry,” implies the very reverse. Infatuation and emulation of the Golden Age proved a barrier to home-spun nature and the thorn birds book, landscape literature—briefly recollect the horace miner body ritual among the nacirema essay shepherd not as he is but as he might once have been—and it was the letter phd position Picturesque movement which gradually laboured in chipping away at horace miner among the nacirema, that barrier. This can be seen even in Pope’s pastoral verse, “Spring. The First Pastoral, or Damon”: despite mimetic qualities, the poem works upon the premise of “ Cynthus and Hybla yield to for a Windsor- Shade” (68), festooning lines with English flora. The result is a hodge-podge of among the nacirema, classical characters, ancient gods, and the English rose as an uncomfortable floral bed fellow. The new focus on landscape through the Picturesque was never a reinvention of the Golden Age: the Picturesque includes in its composite elemental degeneration, hardship and ruin: the stuff of the English countryside rather than the eternal Mediterranean spring and a life of ease.

Richard Payne Knight’s comment that “a person conversant with the that writing writings of miner body among, Theocritus and Virgil will relish pastoral scenery more than one unacquainted with such poetry” ( Inquiry , 150), demonstrates the difficulties involved in adopting a new and provincial landscape still largely devoid of literary and artistic association and argumentative essay, prestige. Such comments lead Malcolm Andrews to talk of the horace miner ritual the nacirema essay “elitism of the Picturesque” (4), though it seems more appropriate—especially when we consider the eventual popularity of picturesque tourism—to understand rather the elitism of Knight himself. The plethora of Picturesque guide books is careers that involve writing creativity, indicative of the increasing popularity of landscape appreciation. This gradual shift from horace miner body among “elite” to general can also be seen in Gilpin’s Observations on the River Wye : the cover letter application first edition of ritual among, 1782 features Latin quotations which, in the second 1789 edition are all translated. Thesis Form? If textbooks on landscape gardening exist for the narrow academic, this by no means suggests the humble fellow busy building his lily pond is similarly focused. The initial references to Virgil and Horace were as necessary as they were inappropriate: before Britain could be truly discovered and localised, it was conceptualised as a transplanted Arcadia, where northern Shepherds wandered crooked hills buffeted by Mediterranean breezes, expecting at any moment to come upon a triumphant Aeneas. With no traditional appreciation for landscape as a meaningful aesthetic experience, new understanding, occasioned by the novel introduction of landscape paintings, came not from the nacirema essay a moment of revelation, but rather from success a gradual modification and eventual weakening of what was already known. Essentially, Pope understood a well composed garden to be an emblem of good order reflecting the inner good order of the educated mind. The Nacirema? His treatment of nature is subjugated by the omnipresent and Elizabethan notion that “ORDER is Heav’n’s first law” ( Essay on Man , Epistle IV, 50), though devoid of Shakespeare’s sense of nature’s power, of Godlike omnipotence; and botany, biology, anthropology, philosophy, painting, all become mere lessons in classical history. That Involve? Classical pastoral and Georgic writing, in simple terms, are too distant and different to ever speak of England, no matter how cunningly coined and conflated with native elements.

Like Windsor Forest, Pope’s Picturesque is one defined by omission, a Picturesque truly without the body picture. The Picturesque Scene. James Thomson (1700-1748), as an acquaintance of Arbuthnot, Gray and Pope, falls firmly into the neo-classical camp. His landscapes, although they were greatly influenced by those of Claude, Rosa and Poussin, include only occasional classical allusions, and from this we see some glimmering hope of rebellion. Indeed, this is the case: the report bugle call bugled, the neo-classical swan-song giving way to. The Muses, still with freedom found, Shall to thy happy coast repair: Blest isle! with matchless beauty crown'd, And manly hearts to guard the fair.

Rule, Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves.(“Rule Britannia”, 1729) Despite somewhat artificial diction, Thomson’s The Seasons :[26], first completed in 1730 and horace miner ritual among the nacirema, later expanded, offers a landmark in English poetry. The influence of the increasingly familiar Picturesque is particularly clear in Winter : the first edition expressed only careers involve, minor pictorial interest; in the second, Thomson inserts such Salvatorian lines as “. Horace Ritual? . . Thesis Form? The cloudy Alps and Appenine / Capt with grey mists, and everlasting snows; / Where nature in stupendous ruin lies. (243-5) The remaining three books, composed subsequently to Winter , feature diverse landscape scenes. Summer (1727) illustrates Claudian sun play: . Horace Miner Body Among? . . yonder comes the powerful king of day, Rejoicing in the east. The lessening cloud. The kindling azure, and the mountain’s brim,

Illumed with fluid gold; (81-84) In Spring both the essay success poet and Nature play the part of painter: Behold yon breathing prospect bids the miner body ritual among essay Muse. Throw all her beauty forth. But who can paint. Like Nature?

Can imagination boast, Amid its gay creation, hues like hers? Or can it mix them with that matchless skill. And lose them in each other, as appears. In every bud that blows. (467-73) Manwaring explains: “In the edition of thesis form, 1744—that is, after his visit to Italy and his collecting of prints—appears the most elaborately composed of the nacirema essay, all his landscapes, with real Claudian distances” (104). Careers That Creativity? Although none of this is specifically Picturesque, the body ritual among the nacirema Claudian influence and the well defined conflation of poetry and landscape painting demonstrate the development underway. Abandoning rhyming couplets was nothing new—indeed, The Seasons , as commonly acknowledged, owes some of its versification to Miltonic influence—but in cover for a phd position application the context of Pope’s predominant style it was a break in the pillars of the literary establishment.

The popularity of The Seasons , with over three hundred editions published between 1750 and 1850, is a testament to the vitality of the Picturesque trend. Certainly, The Seasons is not solely a Picturesque poem, though the influence of painting is body, everywhere; and the title itself, suggestive of the thesis form temporal changes of nature, quotes the movement of Picturesque tenets in implicit opposition to the static catalogues of Pope: a real landscape that generates and degenerates. Horace Body Ritual Among? Although the poem predates the apex of structure, Picturesque popularity, there can be no doubt as to the Picturesque vision that made the miner body ritual among essay conception possible: . . Horace Miner Body Among Essay? . now the bowery walk. Of covert close, where scarce a speck of body ritual among essay, day. Falls on the lengthened gloom, protracted sweeps; Now meets the creativity bending sky, the river now. Dimpling along, the breezy ruffled lake.

The forest darkening round, the glittering spire, The ethereal mountain, and miner, the distant main. Here we see not only metastasis, the chequered canvas of change, with the temporal “now” rather than Pope’s unplaceable “here” and cover for a phd position application, “there,” but also key Picturesque elements: the dimpling river anticipates Knight’s original musing on smoothness : Smoothness being properly a quality perceived only by the touch, and applied metaphorically to body ritual among the objects of the other senses, we often apply it very improperly to those of vision; assigning smoothness, as a cause of visible beauty, to things, which, though smooth to the touch, cast the most sharp, harsh, and angular reflections of light upon the eye. . . . Letter For A Application? ( An Analytical Inquiry , 65) The ethereal mountains offering a suggestion of sublime grandeur; the depth of field, with the ritual the nacirema essay meandering river leading the eye towards a distant background. Unlike Pope, Thomson invites the phd position reader to view the landscape with leading locutions: “see,” “prospect” and “yon,” and the frequent use of the miner ritual the nacirema essay present tense. Thesis Form? As Watson points out, the description of George Lyttelton’s estate at miner ritual essay, Hagley “is carefully composed and presented as foreground (the Hall), middle distance (villages, fields, heathlands, a ‘broken landscape’) and background (the Welsh mountains)” (32), a method identical to that employed later by Picturesque writers[27] and intrinsic to two sided essay the landscape artist’s craft.[28] Andrews, however, refuses to see any influence of picturesque painting in Thomson’s The Seasons , asserting instead the influence stems rather from literature. External evidence all suggests otherwise.

The historical context: this is, after all, rapidly becoming the age of landscapes and influence seems virtually unavoidable; the geographical: the poem was actually revised and horace miner body ritual, partly rewritten at Hagley, then newly laid out thesis form according to picturesque tenets; and, as mentioned above, Thomson travelled to Italy during the composition, making subsequent books markedly richer in landscape images. Unfortunately, Andrews’ literary bias—the idea, for example, that, “Painting’s sister-art [literature] had shown the way to freedom from didacticism or slavish topographical portraiture with Thomson’s The Seasons ” (25), places the literary cart before the Picturesque horse. However, it is horace body ritual among, internal evidence itself which most clearly outlines the absurdity of Andrews horsing around: Meantime you gain the hight, from whose fair brow. The bursting prospects spreads immense around; And, snatched o’er hill and dale, and wood and lawn, The verdant field, and darkening heath between, And villages embosomed soft in trees, And spiry towns by surging columns marked. Of household smoke, your eyes excursive roams— Wide-stretching from the Hall in whose kind haunt.

The hospitable genius lingers still, To where the broken landscape, by degrees. Ascending, roughens into rigid hills. O’er which the Cambrian mountains, like far clouds. That skirt the blue horizon, dusky rise. Cover? ( Spring , 950-62)

Selected almost at random, there can be no doubt even here of the analogy to body the nacirema landscape canvas: the structure scene is both designed and horace miner ritual the nacirema essay, unified, with precisely placed detail within the larger picture framework; with foreground, middleground and cover letter for a application, background all respectively described. The passage also contains key picturesque elements: contrast, for example, between wood and lawn, field and heath; the horace the nacirema essay texture of the rough rigid hills; the success broken allusion; and the sublime cloud-like mountains. Miner Body Essay? The influence of landscape paintings upon a burgeoning genre of landscape and nature literature seems beyond question and Andrews’ cart is two sided structure, not only misplaced but surely wrecked by a broken axle. The interconnectivity between these two arts is further illustrated by Turner and Constable, for whom Thomson was a favourite poet, adopting lines appended to several canvases. [29] Indeed, Turner’s Aeolian Harp (see figure 8) was exhibited in 1809 with a poem that begins: On Thomson’s tomb the horace miner body ritual the nacirema essay dewy drops distil, Soft tears for that creativity Pity shed for Pope’s lost fame, To worth and verse adhere sad memory still, Scorning to miner the nacirema wear ensnaring fashion’s chain.

In silence go, fair Thames, for that writing creativity all is laid. While flows the stream, unheeded and unsung. Resplendent Seasons! chase oblivions shade. (qtd. Bicknell, 32) The poem highlights each season in turn, though, as Bicknell explains, quoting various art scholars, it is miner ritual among, based not so much on phd position Thomson’s work as William Collin’s “Ode occasion’d by the death of Mr Thomson.” The four figures in the picture, however, are understood to represent the seasons. Bicknell concludes: “Turner’s picture pays homage both to Claude and to Thomson, and in doing so it enshrines the link between the ‘picturesque poets’ and the ‘Italian’ landscape painters(33). During the swan-song years of the eighteenth century, classical poets were losing ground to the increasing number of British poets, with classical allusion becoming thin on the ground. Concomitantly, . . . booksellers were no longer addressing a relatively few, elite readers but a wide, mixed audience including merchants, professionals, children, and urban servants, as well as traditional audiences. (Benedict, 158) Thus, there existed a growing exigency for a new kind of literature, removed from the Grub Street Press, yet more in tune with more people, more accessible, reflecting more the horace body among changing social condition. John Dyer (1699-1757), of course, is best remembered for “Grongar Hill.” Describing the scenery of the river Towy, there is a Wordsworthian quality of observation, personal reflection and picturesque features: “prospect,” “Old castles,” “ruins, moss and weeds,” and so on; there is the occasional picturesque personification, as in “And ancient towers crown his brow, / That cast an awful look below” (71-72); though mostly we have only a topographical and horace miner body essay, irregular ode in rhyming couplets. Published in 1726, it draws immediate comparison with Thomson’s The Seasons . Besides taking landscape as its primary focus, “Grongar Hill” really sits in the shadow of The Seasons , offering only the occasional sign of life, such as:

And see the rivers how they run, Thro’ woods and meads, in shade and horace body ritual among, sun! Sometimes swift and sometimes slow, Wave succeeding wave, they go. A various journey to the deep, Like human life to Endless sleep. (93-98)

Dyer made several tours of two sided essay structure, England and Wales, travelled to horace miner among the nacirema Italy, studied to be a painter long before he became a parson-poet, and there is, certainly, a convincing affection for landscape in essay “Grongar Hill”—though this is more strongly expressed in The Country Walk , whose concluding lines draw a melancholy comparison between the utopia of landscape and the distopia of horace miner body among the nacirema, human existence. “Grongar Hill” is framed upon the summit prospect of Grongar Hill[30] and, compared to the rhyming couplets of Pope’s “landscapes,” the view is clear and convincing and the subject focused. It is with Dyer’s final and greatest—in terms of bigness—poem, however, that the poet’s mutable mediocrity comes to light. Cover Phd Position Application? “The Fleece,” praised by Wordsworth—which is perhaps condemnation enough, a certain sign that the egotistical sublimian felt no literary threat[31]—is an anachronistic georgic written thirty years after “Grongar Hill.” Dyer hoped “The Fleece” would provide necessary information allowing sheep farmers to improve their stock and the quality of horace body the nacirema essay, wool; to improve the fortunes of combers, dyers and weavers; to that writing creativity improve Britain’s trade by advocating expansion abroad. Miner The Nacirema? A georgic with such—conventional—pragmatic goals finds high poetic diction and frequent digressions a serious impediment. It is difficult bordering on impossible to imagine one tenth of those concerned in horace among essay the industry with the faculty and willingness, not to ritual among the nacirema mention leisure time, to ritual among essay read such a long run-around poem. If ever there was a case for abandoning classical models, this georgic, begging for among the mercy of simple prose, pleads guilty and stands duly condemned. The Thorn Report? Essentially, Dyer proclaims here his affiliation with Dryden’s now ageing notion, expounded in horace ritual essay “Parallel betwixt Poetry and Painting” (1695), that the primary end of Painting is to careers that involve please, though the ultimate end of Poetry is to instruct. Dyer’s affection for miner body essay rural landscapes is perhaps all the more remarkable for this utilitarian and mercantile disposition.

Unlike Wordsworth, Dyer saw no injurious contiguity between industry and trade. Quite the contrary: “Trade,” he wrote, “is the daughter of peace” (qtd. Williams, 98). Williams, in miner body ritual the nacirema essay his biography of Dyer, continues, . . . traders and merchants, he felt, were promoters of peace and therefore of civilisation.. And by aiding them to bring natural resources and industries together, to develop new resources, new manufactures, and new means of miner body the nacirema, transportation, Dyer felt that he too was promoting peace and civilisation. (98) The same, in that fact, is true of the nacirema essay, The Seasons , though Thomson’s approbation of mercantilism—as well as the didactic insertions—is less the business of the poem and more an unfortunate by-product. If “Grongar Hill” makes a step forwards towards the romantic movement, “The Fleece” takes several backwards. In his preface to the second edition of Winter , Thomson mentions Virgil’s Georgics as one of his models. He insists, however, that Winter bore a closer resemblance to the devotional literary tradition which included the Pentateuch, the Book of Job, and thesis form, Paradise Lost . “The Fleece,” on the other hand, is not only fully georgic but formally inappropriate to its purpose.

There is, then, in Dyer something of the horace neo-classical romantic dichotomy, the day-dreamer and the practical day-worker and it is in this context that he is birds report, best read and makes most sense. Neo-classicists’ adoption of the Picturesque, with Claude recognised as the precursor, was initially perhaps not inevitable though certainly understandable. There was, however, a certain incongruity to this adoption, for the geometry of contemporary gardens and regularity of versification were essentially antithetical to the Picturesque. Besides, the serenity and classical nostalgia of Claude was losing ground to the wildness of the more rugged Rosa (see figure 9) whose craggy cliffs and toothed trees and desolate domains were closer to both lakeland scenes and romantic sensibilities. Neo-classicism and formative Picturesque then were uneasy partners. Upon the horace ritual the nacirema crumbling and essay education, tumbling columns of neo-classicism was slowly builded an ever more refined picturesque aesthetic. Tentative attempts at picturesque typified in The Seasons and “Grongar Hill” provides a background for body an entirely new landscape of aesthetic appreciation and artistic expression that was quite simply blowing through the temporal winds and thesis form, disturbing everything in its path.

For all the aesthetic developments taking place as the horace body among the nacirema essay eighteenth century progressed, neo-classicism was reluctant to give up the thesis form battle. Thomas Warton, in Poems on Several Occasions, (1748) includes such key terms as “Nature’s Landscapes,” “Dark woods and pensive waterfalls,” “Desert Prospects rough and body essay, rude,” “a green Valley’s wood-encircled Side.” However, translations and paraphrases of Horace rub shoulders with “Ode to body among the nacirema essay Taste”: Leave not Britannia’s Isle; since Pope is fled. To meet his Homer in Elysian Bowers, What Bard shall dare resume. His Various-sounding Harp?(180) Warton then demonstrates the literary discord at this time, the horace ritual essay venerational prestige of Pope, and the staying power of neo-classicism. Cover Application? As late as 1775 and horace miner among the nacirema essay, calling to mind Gilpin’s examination of natural and moral beauty in Stowe , Samuel Johnson, in Journey to birds report the Western Islands of Scotland wrote: An eye accustomed to flowery pastures and waving harvests is astonished and miner body ritual, repelled by this wide extent of hopeless sterility.

The appearance is that of matter incapable of form or usefulness, dismissed by nature from her care and disinherited from her favours. (qtd. Andrews, 197) There was no extensive digging and chiselling, no blasting of hill and dale, no landscaping on a geographic scale, no remoulding or recasting of this northern nation, no topographical development. Two Sided Argumentative Essay? The only conceivable change was internal: aesthetic conception; and ritual among the nacirema, with this mightiest of change, the Scottish Highlands would soon become—and remain—one of the most picturesque areas in all Britain. Figure 8: Turner, Thomson’s Aeolian Harp, from Bicknell. Figure 9: Salvator Rosa, Mountain landscape, from Bicknell.

“This mountainous landscape is of a type which particularly appealed to English taste. It could be a Salvatorian of a scene in the Lake District or North Wales” (Bicknell, 5) The Middle Ground: Wordsworth. The artistic and aesthetic links established in Section One now become particularly significant. This section will include an important aetiological component, identifying the articles of faith employed in establishing the standard—and erroneous—critical guiding conception of the Picturesque. Having, hopefully, and to some degree, divested Wordsworth (1770-1850) of the prophetic, revolutionary inspired vestments which modern scholars intimatingly fancy his dress, the entire fabric of the venerational and vituperative theory of Wordsworth and the Picturesque respectively becomes bare supposition, allowing, finally, a more valid and useful appraisal of the two. The influence of the Grand Tour in fostering an the thorn birds report, intense and popular interest in scenic tourism—it was in the 1780s that the word ‘tourist’ entered the English language—the increasing familiarity of landscape paintings, philosophical enquiries which intellectualised landscape, the religious symbolism which initially justified landscape not only for the French but for the Hudson River Group in North America, the popularity of landscape gardening, all these were elements in a new cultural and ritual the nacirema essay, aesthetic picture. And yet, as mentioned in the previous section, the neo-classical constituent, as much a symbol of “quality” as Friedrich’s Cross On the Mountain was of faith, stubbornly persisted. Essay? The prestige of the horace miner ritual the nacirema classical past essentially allowed the prestige of the present, and with nature already running wild in picturesque landscape gardens, neo-classicism endured like an old marble statue, certainly, its arm’s severed at the shoulder and missing a leg, yet still solid and strong. Romantic poetry would provide the final cutting edge, individuality and originality and subjectivity and body among essay, emotional response would allow a cultural coming of age; and body among the nacirema, if the for a statue would always remain, at least now the head could be lopped off.

In addition to the impetus provided by this new and burgeoning cultural and aesthetic picture, there was also some imperative to fill a literary void. Sonnets, long castrated of their erotic themes, momentarily seduced by religion and politics, were by now only a literary footnote. Similarly, allegory seemed an anachronistic way of describing a shovel by horace ritual the nacirema essay, digging a hole. The epic itself existed only as a mockery. Worst of all, newer innovations like the invariable antithetical rhyming couplet inevitably lost their heroic gloss and seemed more like a tired knave than a tireless knight. Report? Only satire and burlesque—seventeenth century developments—retained any semblance of staying power. In simple terms, literary convention increasingly lacked invention. The cause and effect relationship between this void and the development of a new aesthetic is perhaps too metaphysical and certainly too immaterial for horace miner among essay this examination, though the possibility at least suggests mandate for change. It is within the cover phd position context of this paradigm shift that Wordsworth reads not as literary prophet, but as a poetic designer involved in a movement already re-fashioning the cultural and horace miner body essay, social fabric. By the careers creativity time Wordsworth published Lyrical Ballads (1798), the appreciation of miner, nature had reached the philosophical—if not numerical—levels prevalent in the present day. Nature now becomes the focal point, no longer limited to a laudation of man and ownership, nor a Pope-like praise of ancient Mediterranean insinuation.

Clearly, such mimetic representations will no longer answer. Literature, within this context and cover for a phd position, with its associative ability, can treat nature with a new respect and generosity: can actually turn the silence of centuries into articulations of moment. There is general agreement that Wordsworth’s early poetry borrows from Picturesque aesthetics. A brief survey will therefore suffice. “An Evening Walk,” published in 1793 and written in heroic couplets, is essentially a conventional attempt at picturesque verse, replete with cascade scene, precipice, mountain farm, female beggar, rocky sheepwalks and miner ritual essay, tremulous cliffs: a topographical poem in which Wordsworth’s authorial voice remains only a whisper. Unconfined to any particular place, the poem provides a composite image consistent with typical picturesque sketches and suggestive—ironically—of Beaumont’s ruinous castle ruin.

As J. R. Miner Ritual Essay? Watson demonstrates, “Tintern Abbey” (1798) begins with a canvas-like description with three planes of body ritual among, depth. The poem then moves on: The day is thesis form, come when I repose. Here, under this dark sycamore, and view. These plots of ritual the nacirema, cottage-ground, these orchard-tufts, Which, at this season, with their unripe fruits.

Are clad in one green hue, and lose themselves. ’Mid groves and copses. Once again I see. These hedge-rows, hardly hedge-rows, little lines. Of sportive wood run wild: these pastoral farms, Green to the very door; and two sided essay, wreaths of smoke. Sent up, in silence, from among the trees! With some uncertain notice, as might seem.

Of vagrant dwellers in the houseless woods, Or of horace body essay, some Hermit’s cave, where by his fire. The Hermit sits alone. (9-22) Here the sycamore serves as both frame and point of letter, perspective to the scene; typical picturesque elements appear: the wildness of the miner ritual among the nacirema essay wood, pastoral farms offering contrast as well as an echo of Virgil’s Georgics , an attention to foreground and background. But the scene is extra dimentionalised, beyond—at least for those with a literary bias—the possibilities of brush and colour: “Once again I see” underscores both memory and a personal reaction to the scene; whilst the bromidic picturesque figure—the hermit—appears not to the eye but to letter for a phd position the imagination. And yet, although the poem, by virtue of the medium, achieves that extra-dimension, it remains within the Picturesque paradigm. Gilpin, for example, also recorded his impression of horace among the nacirema essay, Tintern Abbey years before Wordsworth: Every thing around breathes an air so calm, and tranquil; so sequestered from the commerce of life, that it is easy to conceive, a man of warm imagination, in monkish times, might have been allured by such a scene to become an inhabitant of it. ( Obs.

Wye , 32) Watson admits that this might perhaps have provided the “forerunner” [32] of Wordsworth’s hermit; but also that Gilpin here is concerned with the “kind of relationship between man and the landscape” (81) that Wordsworth was later to develop. [33] Not surprisingly, “Tintern Abbey” soon moves away from Tintern Abbey and becomes the familiar Wordsworthian recollection filled in with the “moral and mystical” (Watson, 84) of the thorn book report, landscape. Horace Miner Body The Nacirema? And yet the poem’s structure can serve as an outline of thesis form, Picturesque application in romantic poetry: the picturesque provides the subject—and initially the ability to see that subject—which then allows the expanded vista possible through literature. Horace Body Essay? Memory, subjectivity and imagination—Wordsworth categorical—together act as an augmentative device which transforms flat canvas into romantic tapestry. Book? There is, in addition, some hint of the egotistical sublime combined with the ability of nature to mould character: . . . For I have learned. To look on nature, not as in the hour. Of thoughtless youth, but hearing oftentimes. The still sad music of humanity, Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power. To chasten and subdue. (89-94) “Michael” (1800), though not specifically a picturesque poem, nevertheless is based upon a nostalgic view of rural England intrinsic to body among the nacirema the Picturesque school and a offers a nationalised and temporalised form of the neo-classical Golden Age.

The poem alludes to contemporary political and economical conditions turning peasants into the manufacturing poor, who, nomadic and landless, drift into London like the flotsam of some vast socio-economic flood. Indeed, many districts at that time remained completely excluded from birds book report urban economics, with foreign products as foreign as the products themselves. Even at the beginning of this century the Yorkshire yeoman was ignorant of sugar, potatoes, and cotton; the Cumberland dalesman, as he appears in Wordsworth's Guide , lived entirely on miner ritual the produce of his farm. [34] The half finished sheep-pen of the letter phd position poem, a heap of rocks that remain after the poem’s closure, symbolises old Michael and his half finished ambitions for his son, now gone from the ritual essay protective fold and corrupted by modernity. If the poem then is not strictly picturesque, it speaks with picturesque philosophy and provides an example of a more subtle picturesque application. Clearly, Wordsworth’s early poetry borrowed liberally from both the Augustan tradition as well as Picturesque convention. His poetical path, however, gradually meanders away from neo-classicism and towards an expanded and less categorical mode of Picturesque philosophy. Hugh Sykes Davies’ insistence upon “Wordsworth’s subjection to the ‘picturesque’ fashion” (236) in these early days, culminating in the poet’s decortication of the book report entire model, smacks of an obscurantist philosophy turned barrier to the imagination and denies the jagged foundation the Picturesque provided for the appreciation of countryside as a highly refined aesthetic.

But more of that right now. The Gospel According to Wordsworth. We have finally reached the first of two sources which together have prescribed the modern critical assessment of the miner body ritual among the nacirema Picturesque and its influence on romantic poetry—at least for scholars of literature. Descriptive Sketches—the Footnote [35] Pope’s Dunciad conclusively proved the potential of the horace miner the nacirema humble footnote to subvert a text. Horace Miner Among? In the the thorn book report case of Descriptive Sketches , a single footnote has subverted much of modern scholarship on the Picturesque.

Here it is, in all its humble magnificence: I had once given to these sketches the body essay title of Picturesque; but the Alps are insulted in applying to success education them the term. Whoever, in horace ritual the nacirema attempting to describe their sublime features, should confine himself to the cold rules of painting would give his reader but a very imperfect idea of those emotions which they have the irresistible power of communicating to the most impassioned imaginations. (Note to that involve creativity line 299) Davies descends upon this “cold rules of painting” as if the very death of the Picturesque depended upon it. In actual fact, this criticism suggests Gilpin as the principle target; and the reproof, despite Wordsworth’s implied intention, is the nacirema essay, narrow rather than general. In fact, there is nothing original or remarkable here: it is essentially a restatement of Richard Payne Knight, who, we recall, offered a “Curse on the pedant jargon, that defines / Beauty's unbounded forms to given lines!” ( The Landscape: a Didactic Poem , 6) Indeed, it was only Gilpin’s first publication, Essay on Prints , which placed particular stress on the “rules of painting” and for the simple reason that the volume was, essentially, a “How-To” manual on landscape painting rather than a treatise on the Picturesque. It seems strange too that Davies, here upholding the merits of the imagination compared to those “cold rules of painting,” mentions that Knight had “ meddled extensively with the ‘Imagination’” [36] (my italics, 205); though assumedly anyone connected with the creativity Picturesque and horace ritual among, not poetry really can only “meddle”—even “extensively.” Watson also picks up on argumentative essay structure this footnote; but, realising that there are nevertheless acres of the Picturesque in miner body among Descriptive Sketches , prevaricates hither and thither, jumping from one explanation to another like so many stepping stones where only the wetness of the river is certain.

His first tentative foothold comes from the fact that Wordsworth carried through the Alps a number of Picturesque guidebooks, causing him to suggest, “It is therefore not surprising that the poem should contain a number of picturesque appreciations” (73-74). The stepping stone here sinks without further comment. Next, Watson suggests—with depth defying penetration—that Wordsworth had a “divided mind” (74); and two sided argumentative structure, further, that it is this “which makes Descriptive Sketches such an unsatisfactory poem” (74). This is ritual essay, clearly a dangerous place to stand, since, I would suggest, when it comes to the Picturesque, Wordsworth’s mind was always divided. Watson jumps again: Wordsworth is.

struggling to express qualities which the writers on the picturesque did not sufficiently recognise. In the first place there are atmospheric effects of light which transcend the tonal range of contemporary painting. (75) This is on that the same footing as the earlier: “Wordsworth was envisaging effects of light which were not to be mastered on Canvas until Turner” (72). In fact such “effects of light” had long since been mastered, by Claude. In fact, he was to horace the nacirema some extent the originator: Andrew Wilton, in his introduction to Turner’s Picturesque Views in England and Wales , identifies Claude as the inventor of the “‘Sunset Harbour theme” (Shanes, 6). This then is cover letter application, clearly an example of a literature critic wiggling his fingers in horace miner the nacirema essay the pool of the the thorn report art historian; rather than catching a fish, he is bitten by ritual among the nacirema, a school of aesthetics. Thesis Form? Watson must once again skip onward. His final place of horace ritual the nacirema, rest is to suggest that Wordsworth here was concerned with “liberty,” although, since the “subject” of the poem is the Swiss Alps, “he could not omit the scenery” (75).

This, in fact, is true, though most elements are undeniably Picturesque, like this blending of the beautiful and sublime: How blest, delicious scene! the eye that greets. Thy open beauties, or thy lone retreats; Beholds the unwearied sweep of wood that scales. Lo, where she sits beneath yon shaggy rock,

A cowering shape half hid in curling smoke!(177-78) Other examples of Picturesque idiom include: “water's shaggy side”; “Thy lake, that, streaked or dappled, blue or grey”; “Hermit”; and argumentative, “antique castles.” It seems strange too that Wordsworth should frame the topic of liberty in his supposed antithesis of liberty: those cold picturesque rules. Watson clearly recognises the miner body ritual the nacirema essay dichotomous anomaly at work,[37] and his stepping and side stepping is an attempt to bring resolution within the framework of standard literary theory on the relationship between Wordsworth’s poetry and the Picturesque. Clearly, Watson gets a good wetting and explains nothing. So what is the solution? The fact that we are dealing, for the moment, with a footnote provides the perfect analogy: Wordsworth’s Picturesque criticism should be read as nothing more than a footnote, and thesis form, a footnote in the style of The Dunciad at horace body ritual among the nacirema, that. When literary theory, even—and perhaps especially—from the original poet himself, is at odds with the literature itself, then the obvious conclusion is to abandon the theory; instead, Wordsworth’s musings are taken as gospel and an altar of theory is builded upon them. The only writing creativity, truly cold rule, it seems, is that Wordsworth “transcends” the picturesque because he says so himself. Turning now from general to particular, it should be clear that this “cold rules” versus “imagination” is altogether a red-herring, easily caught by literary critics and horace miner among the nacirema, used to feed a thousand other misconceptions.

William Combe’s brilliant satire, A Tour in Search of the Picturesque, by ritual the nacirema, the Reverend Doctor Syntax (see figure 10)—clearly derived from Gilpin—reveals his neo-classical bent by ridiculing the very idea of the imagination versus the true copy of Nature: Upon the bank awhile I’ll sit, And let poor Grizzle graze a bit; But, as my time shall not be lost, I’ll make a drawing of the horace miner among essay post; And, tho’ a flimsy taste may flout it, There’s something picturesque about it: ’Tis rude and rough, without a gloss.

And is well cover’d o’er with moss; And I’ve a right—(who dares deny it?) To place yon group of asses by success, it. Aye! this will do: and now I’m thinking, That self-same pond where Grizzle’s drinking, If hither brought ’twould better seem. And faith I’ll turn it to a stream. (9) Of course, the exaggeration is as sparkling as the pond that flows into the stepping-stone stream; but we should consider Constable’s Flatford Mill from the horace miner body ritual essay Lock , which is exactly this kind of composite picture and deserves—indeed, receives—only approbation. There are indeed rules of composition, in painting as well as poetry, but to define the Picturesque according to these is to define poetry. according to grammar and spelling. There is, in both the Picturesque and poetry, imagination and expression.

Returning to the original point. W. M. Merchant, in his introduction to creativity Wordsworth’s Guide , also cites this same footnote as proof of Wordsworth’s asperity to Picturesque theory and goes on horace miner ritual among to say how singular Wordsworth’s guide is. Careers That Involve Writing? More forthright still, Rhoda L. Horace Miner Body Ritual? Flaxman, Victorian Word-Painting and Narrative: Toward the Blending of Genres , understands the note to be “an abrupt declaration of independence from eighteenth-century picturesque aesthetic” (67). All these evaluations, however, neglect several important points: firstly, Wordsworth’s footnote continues, the unique and. . . . peculiar features of the phd position Alps. Horace Ritual The Nacirema Essay? . . For A Phd Position Application? . The fact is, that controlling influence, which distinguishes the Alps from all other scenery, is derived from images which disdain the pencil. Had I wished to make a picture of horace body ritual among the nacirema essay, this scene I had thrown much less light into it. But I consulted nature and my feelings. The ideas excited by the stormy sunset I am here describing owed their sublimity to that deluge of light, or rather of thesis form, fire, in which nature had wrapped the immense forms around me; any intrusion of shade, by destroying the unity of the impression, had necessarily diminished its grandeur. (Note to line 299) So the Alps then are not like the mountains of Cumberland, Yorkshire, Wales and Scotland; and rather than offering an “abrupt declaration of independence,” Wordsworth actually points homeward for authentic picturesque scenes. Secondly, this so called “reaction against the Picturesque” (Davies, 240) entirely disregards chronology: Descriptive Sketches was published in 1793; Wordsworth’s own Guide , which, as we will see, makes great use of Picturesque sensibility and idiom, in 1810.[38] Thirdly, as already mentioned, the fact remains that Wordsworth footingly denounces the miner body among limitations of the Picturesque yet, in the poetry itself, he delivers Picturesque description.

Book XII of The Prelude , tintilatingly entitled “Imagination and Taste, How Impaired and Restored,” provides most to the fodder for modern critical understanding of ritual the nacirema essay, Wordworth’s relationship to horace miner among essay the Picturesque. [39] The offending lines begin: What wonder, then, if, to letter for a phd position application a mind so far. Perverted, even the visible Universe. Fell under the dominion of a taste. Less spiritual, with microscopic view. Was scanned, as I had scanned the moral world?(88-92)

Unworthy, disliking here, and there. Liking; by rules of mimic art transferred. To things above all art; but more,—for this, Although a strong infection of the age, Was never much my habit—giving way. To a comparison of scene with scene, Bent overmuch on superficial things, Pampering myself with me agre novelties.

Of colour and proportion; to the moods. Of time and season, to the moral power, The affections and the spirit of the place, I speak in recollection of a time. When the bodily eye, in every stage of horace miner ritual among the nacirema, life. The most despotic of our senses, gained. Such strength in 'me' as often held my mind. In absolute dominion. (127-130) There are in our existence spots of the thorn book, time, That with distinct pre-eminence retain. A renovating virtue, whence—depressed.

By false opinion and contentious thought, Or aught of heavier or more deadly weight, In trivial occupations, and the round. Of ordinary intercourse—our minds. Are nourished and horace miner ritual among essay, invisibly repaired. (208-215) This then is the stuff that contemporary critics have adopted without regard to the dangers of birds book report, accepting the horace body ritual essay artist’s views of his own work. If the creative mind were so simple , the rive gauche would likely as not have moved to Silicon Valley. There can be no doubt that “taste” refers to the Picturesque. There can be no doubt either that Wordsworth declares the Picturesque an impairment to miner body ritual the nacirema essay the imagination.

Several important points, however, should be noted: The Prelude , as was the case with Descriptive Sketches , contains ample picturesque passages, too numerous and too obvious to quote. Here, nevertheless, for the benefit of the incredulous, are a few: In summer, making quest for works of art, Or scenes renowned for among essay beauty, I explored. That streamlet whose blue current works its way. Between romantic Dovedale's spiry rocks; Pried into the thorn birds report, Yorkshire dales, [40] or hidden tracts. Of my own native region. (VI, 190-95)

In the final Book (XIV), fresh from the restoration of his imagination and horace miner body ritual essay, taste, with hardly time to catch a breath between, Wordsworth recounts his gasping ascent of Snowdon, from whence he sees: “A fixed, abysmal, gloomy, breathing-place— / Mounted the roar of waters, torrents, streams / Innumerable, roaring with one voice!” (58-60). Topography ensues. The plot thickens: soon after, there is a twist to the thorn birds report all that domination of the eye business, with Nature making her presence known. . . Miner Ritual Essay? . by putting forth, 'Mid circumstances awful and sublime, That mutual domination which she loves. To exert upon the face of outward things,

So moulded, joined, abstracted, so endowed. With interchangeable supremacy, That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, And cannot choose but feel. Horace Miner Body The Nacirema Essay? (79-86) That domination now shifts from subject to object: man is horace ritual the nacirema essay, no longer dominated by horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, the ocular sense; instead the outward forms of picturesque scenery, by their very nature, captivate man. In any case, the point is horace the nacirema, that even in The Prelude the Picturesque is pictured and admired: The single sheep, and the one blasted tree, And the bleak music from that old stone wall, The noise of wood and water, and the mist. That on the line of each of those two roads. Advanced in such indisputable shapes;

All these were kindred spectacles and sounds. To which I oft repaired, and thence would drink, As at a fountain. (XII, 319-26) Here also is one of Wordsworth’s well-cited spots of time, which often find their source in Picturesque moments inspired by the wildness of nature, where that idiomatic “sublime” is kindled. In this example, we are provided a veritable catalogue of picturesque materials, though again this spot of time incorporates non-visual invocations, composed, not as a sovereign landscape, but more as a sensationscape, an emotional response to news of his father’s death.

In effect, Wordsworth acknowledges the aesthetics of this picturesque catalogue, though he moves towards emotive sense. Further, Wordsworth’s understanding of the subject was undoubtedly clouded, a myopia based upon a narrow definition of the Picturesque—the meaning of which, after all, was always a point of debate and rarely of careers writing creativity, conclusion. Indeed, his criticism of the Picturesque is on the same lines as Uvedale Price’s, who, we might recall, stated that picturesque qualities are “extended to all our sensations by whatever organs they are received.” In other words, “That men, least sensitive, see, hear, perceive, / And cannot choose but feel.” The thing which Wordsworth most condemns—this supposed ocular obsession in the Picturesque—is strangely absent in A Tour in Search of the horace miner body essay Picturesque, by the Reverend Doctor Syntax . For example: “. . . Cover Letter For A Phd Position? while you chase the flying deer, I must fly off to Windermere. Miner The Nacirema Essay? / ’Stead of hallooing to a fox, I must catch echoes from the thesis form rocks” (50). It seems apparent from these few lines the exceptional quality of the satire; strange then that Combe, for miner the nacirema all his excellence, should miss what seems to thesis form be the most objectionable aspect of Picturesque theory. This, perhaps more than anything else, demonstrates that Wordsworth’s dissatisfaction was not empirically with the Picturesque but emphatically with his own conception. The error was his, and the error of those modern critics who unquestioningly accept Wordsworth at his word. Watson suggests further that Wordsworth’s interest in the Picturesque waned due to its inherent “wrong attitude to nature” (97), by which he means a lacking of “humility.” To this, it is perhaps worth re-visiting Gilpin:

Let not inborn pride, Presuming on thy own inventive powers, Mislead thine eye from Nature. She must reign. Great archetype in miner among the nacirema essay all. ( On Landscape Painting: A Poem , 26-30)

Also, Wordsworth’s increasing spirituality offers an unstated though likely cause of further dissatisfaction, that “dominion of essay, a taste / Less spiritual.” Gilpin states in his preface to Tours of the Lakes : “The author hopes that no one will be so severe, as to horace body ritual the nacirema essay think a work of this kind inconsistent with the profession of a clergyman” (xxxi). J. R. Watson understands this as evidence that Gilpin saw nature not as the handiwork of God—as does Thomson, for example—but “as a matter of mere amusement” (40). As Section One made clear, Gilpin here is actually alluding to the amorality of the Picturesque. Nevertheless, from this supposed “mere amusement”, Watson, no doubt now weary of those treacherous stepping stones, makes an astounding leap in logic and concludes: With such an aim, sight alone becomes important, for there is rarely any attempt to ponder the significance of landscape, or the viewer’s emotional relationship towards it. (40) Entirely skipping over the “mere amusement” hypothesis, we might yet wonder at the kind of logic that allows a passage from “mere amusement” to “sight alone.” We might also recall, despite the evidence outlined in Section One demonstrating that Gilpin was not concerned uniquely with sight alone, that Gilpin indeed wrote on the Picturesque from a painterly point of horace miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, view and so any stress that exists upon the visual is rather like the stress upon the aural in an analysis of music.

The importance of all this is to demonstrate the tendentiousness of the support for Wordsworth’s domination of the eye theory. There is, in Gilpin’s preface, nothing whatsoever about “mere amusement” and from that nothingness there is decidedly no logical step to ritual essay “sight alone.” What we really discover here is Watson’s attempt to support subtly Wordsworth’s notion, which, as is horace miner ritual among essay, becoming increasingly apparent, actually had no validity in Wordsworth’s own work. This then is one tiny element in the construction of the predominant Picturesque/romanticism theory. In fact, Gilpin’s note is nothing more sinister than an horace ritual among, acknowledgement that God is largely excluded from the Picturesque view. Careers Creativity? Although Wordsworth might have thought this unfortunate, in terms of historical artistic development, removing God from the picture was essential in bestowing intrinsic validity to nature and landscape. Finally, Wordsworth’s own vision grew from an aesthetic arboretum that was the body among Picturesque. He descended not from heaven, fully formed and ready to pen; but rather was shaped by the multitudinous historical, social, economic, artistic and aesthetic factors. Without the continuum in which the Picturesque was contained, Wordsworth and thesis form, romanticism would have remained a pipe dream piped perhaps by a transplanted neo-classical Roman shepherd. Miner Among The Nacirema Essay? Watson himself reluctantly admits that “in spite of his condemnations of the picturesque and his awareness of the despotic eye, Wordsworth remains interested in landscape as it is seen” (104); and thesis form, yet the horace body ritual the nacirema essay penny never drops and a change of view never takes place. Davies similarly pays great attention to The Prelude , albeit with a more diction-based argument. “In rejecting the education ‘picturesque’,” Wordsworth is “running counter to [the] predominant fashion” (249), and deliberately selects bare and naked scenes. This notion re-creates Wordsworth as an artist removed from historicity, a one man cultural band not only playing his own tunes but inventing his own scales, an idea suggestive even of deification.

As proof, Davies provides a table of “unpicturesque”—nay, “anti-picturesque” (250)—terms harvested from The Prelude . Unfortunately, at least half of them are perfectly picturesque: “cliffs,” unless we imagine a polished cliff; “old stone wall,” unless expurgated of horace miner body ritual the nacirema, lichen and moss and the old stone wall reformed as a new stone wall; “whistling hawthorn,” unless de-thorned, de-whistled and well pruned; “craggy ridge” and “craggy steep,” de-cragged; “perilous ridge,” de-periled. Even those terms which seem marked by a smooth unpicturesque character are often un-picturesque red-herrings: the “naked pool,” is perhaps “water of which the surface is broken, and involve, the motion abrupt and irregular” ( On the Picturesque , 84); or perhaps reflecting the Picturesque scenery in which it resides. More astounding than erroneous, Davies includes “mountains” in his anti-picturesque catalogue! Davies’ crowned prince of body among the nacirema, proofs then turns out to be a beggar boy in disguise, with all the airs and graces and robes of essay success education, royalty, yet concealing a shallow mind and dirty underwear. In addition, even if Davies’ brief was bona fide , the fact remains that Burke’s smooth beauty is, in part, elemental to the Picturesque scene. The absurdity of Davies’ position in this respect is made conspicuous when, ever contrary, he examines the before and after Gilpin prints (see figures 11 and 12) and insists that, “This second print, in its way, is charming enough.

But the first is horace body ritual, impressive” (229)![41] It is essay, this irony, this inconsistency, this disparity that suggests Wordsworth’s professed aversion to the Picturesque should be taken not only with a grain of salt, but with a veritable variety of spices—grown, of course, in a garden suitably picturesque. In the final analysis, it is the horace ritual essay poetry itself which must provide the theory, rather than the poet himself; and indeed, this is the whole point. The Sublime and the Beautiful. Davies’ suggestion that only Wordsworth frequently used “sublime” and “beautiful” conjunctively, to which he devotes several pages, besides being erroneous, reveals a scant familiarity with Gilpin, for, as we have seen, it was the combination of the birds book report beautiful and sublime— “. . . so beautifully sublime, so correctly picturesque” ( Three Essays , 52)—which, for Gilpin, produced the Picturesque and so was central to his own understanding. Whether or not Gilpin offers these words conjunctively once or a thousand times, the point is that the conjunction is omnipresent in his definition of the Picturesque. Just as Brownlow suggests that John Clare transcends the Picturesque by discovering the horace miner body among microcosmos,[42] he also insists that Wordsworth “transcends” the Picturesque by experiencing the “Sublime.” (25) Of course, he is also wrong, and for the same reasons. Since the Picturesque never evolved into a finalised coherent theory, remaining vast in scope, since its primary concern was with landscape and graphic art—Price notwithstanding—the very notion of poets’ “transcending” the Picturesque is two sided argumentative essay structure, one which seems born of an intellectualised mule; and although modern critics seem intent to horace miner ritual among essay ride this mule for all it might be worth, the beast is clearly an essay education, ass of their own imagination. Guide to miner ritual the nacirema essay the Lakes. Davies correctly points out for a that the vigorous and horace miner body the nacirema, much-publicised Picturesque debate raged during the period when Wordsworth was most active as a writer.

As Davies states: “The reader of Wordsworth cannot for long go ignorant of the part played by the Lakes in essay education making him everything he was” (3). Indeed, the popularity of the Lake District is inextricably tied with that of Wordsworth. His own A Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of horace body ritual, England , is, to a large degree, typical of this sub-genre.[43] Not surprisingly, Davies thinks otherwise: Gilpin, he says, believes landscape significant “not for the sake of the people who live in it” (230) but “simply for the painter” (230)—and this despite the following quotation, from Gilpin, two pages earlier: “These smooth-coated mountains, tho of little estimation for the painter’s eye, are, however, great sources of plenty. Cover Letter For A Application? They are the nurseries of horace miner body ritual the nacirema essay, sheep; which are bred here, and fatted in the valley” (228). Gilpin proceeds to the thorn birds book report describe the difficult life of the shepherds. According to Davies, in writing his own Guide , Wordsworth’s “approach was the opposite one” (230)—though it seems that Gilpin’s approach also was opposite. In actual fact, Wordsworth’s guide, as suggested above, is pretty much par for the Picturesque course. Wordsworth even commits the cardinal sin: “The want most felt, however, is that of timber trees. There are few magnificent ones to be found near any of the lakes” (79). Here Wordsworth censures a scene for lacking a particular pictorial element—so much for the opposite approach. Wordsworth’s Guide also demonstrates an eloquent command of Picturesque idiom: “. Miner Among The Nacirema Essay? . . by bold foregrounds formed by the steep and winding banks of the river” (43); “None of the other lakes unfold so many fresh beauties . . . “ (39); “ . . . agreeably situated for careers that involve writing creativity water views” (40); “. Miner Ritual Essay? . Thesis Form? . constitute a foreground for ever-varying pictures of the miner body ritual essay majestic lake” (50).

Besides idiom, Wordsworth participates in success Picturesque politics, supporting Gilpin in his criticism of white painted houses, and sustaining Price’s landscape gardening theories. Miner Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? Neither is Wordworth’s inclusion of poetry in his Guide anything more than standard.[44] Even the prosaic Handy Guide to the English Lakes , now a rare and anonymous sixpenny edition likely destined for the more affluent working class tourist, features such verse as Wordsworth’s: “A straggle burgh of ancient charter proud / And dignified by battlements and towers / Of stern castle, mouldering on the brow / Of a green hill (17). Besides the outbreaks of poetry, the cover for a phd position Handy Guide inevitably features numerous Picturesque line drawings, including one particular example which offers further indication of the popularity of horace among the nacirema essay, Picturesque tourism: an uninteresting depiction of Furness Abbey disinherits the usual foreground grouping of rustic figures, replacing them with a party of careers that involve writing creativity, pic-nicking holiday makers.[45] Davies’ suggestion that Wordsworth’s Guide is “antithetical” (230) to Gilpin’s, for it insists that “the real importance of mountain scenery was not visual, but mental” (230), sounds nice, though unfortunately is nonsense. Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay? Certainly, Gilpin examines landscape from a painterly point of view, though his lengthy guides are filled, as we have seen, with imagination and local human considerations, auditory appreciation and tactile expressions, emotion and admiration. In his Guide , Wordsworth provide a lengthy extract from careers that involve Dr. John Brown’s verse Fragment : Now sunk the sun, now twilight sunk, and night.

Rose in her zenith; not a passing breeze. Sigh’d to miner body the nacirema essay the grove, which in the midnight air. Stood motionless, and in the peacefull floods. Inverted hung: for now the billows slept. Along the shore, nor heav’d the thesis form deep; but spread. A shining mirror to horace ritual the moon’s pale orb, Which, dim and waning, o’er the shadowy cliffs,

The solemn woods, and spiry mountain tops, Her glimmering faintness threw: now every eye, Oppress’d with toil, was drawn’d in deep repose. Save that the unseen Shepherd in involve writing creativity his watch, Propp’d on his crook, stood listening by the fold, And gaz’d the starry vault, and pendant moon; Nor voice, nor sound, broke on the deep serene; But the soft murmur of swift-gushing rills, Forth issuing from the mountain’s distant steep, (Unheard til now, and now scarce heard) proclaim’d. All things at rest, and imagin’d the still voice.

Of quiet, whispering in the ear of night. Body Among The Nacirema? (84) Wordsworth honours Brown as “one of the first who led the way to a worthy admiration of this country” (84); though in thesis form a footnote adds: Dr. Brown, the author of this fragment, was from his infancy brought up in Cumberland, and should have remembered that the practice of folding sheep by night is unknown among these mountains, and that the image of a shepherd upon the watch is out of place, and miner ritual the nacirema essay, belongs only to countries, with a warmer climate, that are subject to argumentative essay the ravages from beasts of prey. It is pleasing to the nacirema notice a dawn of imaginative feeling in these verses. Tickel, a man of no common genius, chose, for the subject of thesis form, a Poem, Kensington Gardens, in preference to the Banks of the Derwent, within a mile or two of which he was born. But this was in the reign of Queen Anne, or George the First. Progress has been made in horace ritual among essay the interval; though the two sided structure traces of it, except in Thomson or Dyer, are not very obvious. (84)

The mention of Tickel immediately invokes neo-classicism and its inability to adopt real landscape, and the shepherd of the fragment becomes an miner body among the nacirema, Arcadian figure. At this point we need only recollect Pope’s comment on shepherds “as they may be conceiv’d then to have been,” to realise the distance already travelled: what once was a rule of horace miner body among, poetry is now a grave error. Davies, brimming with “limitations” of the Picturesque, takes Wordsworth’s footnote and informs us: “This ‘progress’, however, he clearly regarded as limited” (220). Clarity aside, we might wonder how progress can ever be limited, unless we imagine an acorn limited for not already being an oak. To suggest, by extension, that the Picturesque is therefore limited seems to reject a hill for not being a river. But there is more than a call for accurate realism in horace miner the nacirema essay this note, for the “mile or two of thesis form, which he was born” suggests a sentiment both regional—nationalistic in body among essay the larger context—and also, applying Post-colonial hindsight, a conflict between the centre and margin. Treatment of real British landscape without reference to Virgil and careers that writing, Horace and Company insists upon a new centre. This is clearly manifest when both Wordsworth and Coleridge choose between the horace miner body ritual the nacirema essay Alps, the traditional site of the thesis form European sublime, and domestic mountains. In The Prelude , for example, Wordsworth dismisses the Alps, shifting the focus to Snowdon, whilst Coleridge's Scafell experience becomes a celebration of Mont Blanc in the “Hymn before the Sunrise in the Vale of Chamouny.” As Woodring suggests, “Sometimes implicitly but often with a militant defensiveness, exponents of the picturesque declared it a distinctively English answer to the sublime of the miner body among the nacirema essay Alps” (48).

Concomitantly, Wordsworth’s regional loyalty suggests a similar centre/margin dichotomy between urban London and the rural north. In another example of Picturesque nationalism, Wordsworth draws a comparison between the Alps and two sided essay structure, local scenes: The forms of the mountains, though many of miner ritual among, them in some points of writing creativity, view the body ritual among essay noblest that can be conceived, are apt to run into spikes and needles, and present a jagged outline which has a mean effect, transferred to canvas. (74) Wordsworth was a great explorer of the countryside, and, it seems, actually a Picturesque explorer. Thesis Form? As Dorothy Wordsworth wrote in her journal of miner ritual among the nacirema, a Scottish tour: When we were within about half a mile of Tarbet, at a sudden turning, looking the cover letter for a phd position left, we saw a very craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones; the rocks on the summit distinct in body shape as if they were buildings raised up by man, or uncouth images of some strange creature. We called out with one voice, “That’s what we wanted!” alluding to the frame-like uniformity of the side-screens of the lake for the last five or six miles. (qtd. Thesis Form? Watson, 104) Note the “craggy-topped mountain amongst other smooth ones,” the “frame” and “side screens.” Note also “in one voice,” or, “as three persons with one soul,” [46] as Coleridge wrote.

They had then found “what they wanted,” and clearly they wanted the miner ritual Picturesque. In addition to this, a letter written by Dorothy to Coleridge in March 1804 includes mention of two sided, a beck discovered by Wordsworth: “It is a miniature of all that can be conceived of savage and grand about a river, with a great deal of the beautiful. William says that whatever Salvator might desire could be there found” (qtd. Watson, 104).[47] With all this travel and exploration it seems more than natural that Wordsworth would one day write his own Picturesque guide, if only ritual the nacirema, he was not so absolutely clearly and undeniably in opposition to and transcendent of the among the nacirema whole thing. . . . Wordsworth’s Guide was first published anonymously in 1810 and miner body among essay, then, ten years later, in a collection of his own verse. According to that involve creativity W.M. Mercant’s introduction, reviews of the verse were “critical” though the Guide met with “almost unanimous approval” (Guide, 31). Post Apostolical Poetry.

The notion that Wordsworth adopted his own critical assessment—dethroning the monarchical sense of vision—has been seriously questioned from ritual among the nacirema essay various angles. Regardless, if we are indeed to letter phd position take Wordsworth at his word, the expectation would be that only this transcendental picturesque—if any picturesque at all—would henceforth appear. Wordsworth, after all, has accused, judged and condemned the Picturesque and we are told by a jury of modern critics that he will no longer be shackled to that blasted bastion of narrow thinking. How strange then that with the Gospel clearly spelled out, Wordsworth continues to seek the Picturesque and often with an horace body ritual the nacirema essay, entirely conventional viewpoint. For example:

And not a voice was idle: with the din. Smitten, the horace body ritual among precipices rang aloud; The leafless trees and horace miner body ritual among the nacirema, every icy crag. Tinkled like iron; while far-distant hills. Into the tumult sent an alien sound. Of melancholy, not unnoticed while the stars, Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west.

The orange sky of evening died away (“Influence of Natural Objects,” 39-46). Understanding the Picturesque in all its theoretical variety—which now, hopefully is the case—reveals this extract clearly and undeniably as picturesque in sound and not a transcending of the two sided argumentative structure Picturesque. We have already seen how Wordsworth’s own Guide was written years after the momentous formulation of miner body ritual among essay, judgement. In terms of his poetry, there are numerous other examples which similarly contradict the generally accepted view. The sonnet “Between Namur and Liège,” from Memorials of a Tour on the Continent, 1820 , for example:

WHAT lovelier home could gentle Fancy choose? Is this the stream, whose cities, heights, and plains, War's favourite playground, are with crimson stains. Familiar, as the Morn with pearly dews? The Morn, that now, along the success education silver MEUSE, Spreading her peaceful ensigns, calls the swains. To tend their silent boats and miner body among essay, ringing wains, Or strip the bough whose mellow fruit bestrews. The ripening corn beneath it. As mine eyes.

Turn from the fortified and threatening hill, How sweet the miner ritual essay prospect of horace body among the nacirema essay, yon watery glade, With its grey rocks clustering in pensive shade— That, shaped like old monastic turrets, rise. From the argumentative essay smooth meadow-ground, serene and still! This is the entire poem and so quintessentially Picturesque as to require no further comment. More frightening than this—at least for the jury who surely now must be out to lunch—is the horace body essay attached footnote: The scenery on thesis form the Meuse pleases me more, upon the whole, than that of the Rhine, though the river itself is body, much inferior in grandeur. The rocks both in form and colour, especially between Namur and Liege, surpass any upon the Rhine, though they are in several places disfigured by quarries, whence stones were taken for the new fortifications.

This is much to be regretted, for they are useless, and the scars will remain perhaps for careers writing creativity thousands of years. A like injury to horace ritual the nacirema a still greater degree has been inflicted, in book my memory, upon the beautiful rocks of Clifton on the banks of the Avon. There is probably in existence a very long letter of mine to Sir Uvedale Price, in miner body among essay which was given a description of the landscapes on the Meuse as compared with those on the Rhine. This is the entire footnote and now comes the cover letter for a application terrible blind taste test: who could, who would, write such staple, such superficial judging of one scene with another as if they were paintings: Gilpin? Knight? Wordsworth. “Epistle to Sir George Beaumont”—Beaumont, connoisseur, collector, painter, “befriended and encouraged many painters, notably Constable and Ibbetson” (Bicknell, 15) and was a conservative follower of Picturesque tenets (see figure 13)—offers an body ritual among the nacirema essay, example where scenery is described for its own sake, where its very worth is sufficiently innate to need virtually no additional coinage: Within the mirror’s depth, a world at rest— Sky streaked with purple, grove and craggy bield.

And the smooth green of many a pendent field. And, quieted and soothed, a torrent small, A little darling would-be waterfall. One chimney smoking in thesis form its azure wreath, Associate all in the calm pool beneath, With here and there a faint imperfect gleam. Of water-lilies veiled in horace miner misty stream. (174-83) Of course, the richness here is body ritual the nacirema essay, owed largely to the loveliness of the wordscape, a place opulent in picturesque elements: the craggy bield , waterfall, chimney, the horace ritual stream. This epistle, penned in miner body essay 1811, is a veritable treasure trove of picturesque landscape and elements. Body Among? Never actually sent to Beaumont, it was clearly intended as a publishable poem.

Another typically Picturesque poem is horace body among the nacirema essay, “The Pass of Kirkstone,” published in 1817: Oft as I pass along the fork. Of these fraternal hills: Where, save the rugged road, we find. No appanage of human kind; Nor hint of man, if stone or rock. Seem not his handy-work to mock. By something cognizably shaped;

Mockery—or model—roughly hewn, And left as if by earthquake strewn, Or from the miner body Flood escaped:— Altars for letter phd position application Druid service fit; (But where no fire was ever lit. Unless the glow-worm to the skies. Thence offer nightly sacrifice;) Wrinkled Egyptian monument;

Green moss-grown tower; or hoary tent; Tents of a camp that never shall be raised; On which four thousand years have gazed! (3-20) Gone then is the essay Pope-like catalogisation, the very antithesis of Wordsworth’s methodology; instead, though the poetic eye might survey a scene, the poetic voice is two sided argumentative, selective of Constable-like charged spots: the fork in the road, one branch leading to reverie, the richly connotative fraternal hills, the rugged road, which by horace miner body, its very presence admits the absence of man, and finally the rock, whose shape suggests still another landscape: imagined and drawn of history. There is, in “Composed Among the Ruins of a Castle in North Wales” (1824), a parallel to miner body ritual among essay Price’s theories of landscape gardening, where the patina of time is recommended to horace miner ritual the nacirema essay provide an unfinished roughness to stonework, to replace bunched bush with unexpected tree and shiny brick with sombre block. Horace Body Ritual Among The Nacirema? This aesthetic was, as we have seen, actually focused not merely upon visually based appreciation, but upon associated emotional reaction.

The acute interest in ruins demonstrated by ritual among, artists during the cover letter phd position Picturesque period was entirely germane with the general elegiac mood and graveyard melancholy. This interest in ruins, obviously, was shared by Wordsworth. “Composed Among the ritual among Ruins,” after a conventionally ominous opening: “Through shattered galleries, ’mid roofless halls, / Wandering with timid footsteps oft betrayed (1-2), finally becomes a eulogium: Relic of Kings! Wreck of forgotten Wars, To winds abandoned and the prying Stars. Time loves Thee! at horace miner body essay, his call the Seasons twine.

Luxuriant wreaths around thy forehead hoar; And, though past pomp no changes can restore, A soothing recompense, his gift is horace the nacirema, Thine! (9-14) There can be no clearer example of poetic philosophical perspective—Father Time and Mother Nature, the benevolent patrons of careers that involve, Ruin—entirely born of picturesque aesthetic theory. Doubtless there is also a playfulness here, and one reminiscent of Gilpin:

What share of picturesque genius Cromwell might have, I know not. Certain however it is, that no man, since Henry the horace body ritual among the nacirema essay Eighth, has contributed more to adorn this country with picturesque ruins. The difference between these two masters lay chiefly in the style of success education, ruins, in which they composed. Henry adorned his landscape with the ruins of abbeys; Cromwell, with those of castles. I have seen many pieces by this master, executed in a very grand style. . Horace Miner Among The Nacirema? . . (II, 122-3) All this seems further indication of the longevity of the Picturesque. Landscape and (small case) nature clearly are the central rubric of two sided structure, late eighteenth and early nineteenth century cultural movement; and horace miner ritual essay, Wordsworth’s transformation of poetry occurs in a context where new values and two sided argumentative essay structure, aesthetic parameters are well established. It is the colourful mixing of both palettes which is Wordsworth, and which defines early romanticism. Compared to earlier treatments of landscape and nature, offering that flat canvas description, Wordsworth adopts the miner the nacirema criteria of picturesque aesthetics, but incorporates the emotional dimension offered by thesis form, the associative value of word, of memory, of subjective response. Horace Body Ritual The Nacirema? The elements of Picturesque landscape then become “the stuff that dreams are made of”: dreams reflective, dreams nostalgic, dreams dreaming, and dreams born of a learned appreciation for beauty that is particularly and cover application, properly Picturesque.

There is a final plot twist: Watson cunningly has stacked the deck. He swiftly explains away the Picturesque in Wordsworth’s later poetry by suggesting that this is merely the work of miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, “his uninspired years” (92). Essay Success? Of course, this is much too glib, especially when we remember the voracity with which critics inform us of Wordsworth’s rejection of the Picturesque, stressing and re-stressing its “limitations.” Again, what seems a more reasonable explanation is that the Picturesque provided not only the foundations for romantic poetry, but that without the horace body ritual among the nacirema essay Picturesque there would have been no romantic poetry at all. In simple terms, one can perhaps take the poet out of the success Picturesque, but you cannot take the Picturesque out of the horace ritual among the nacirema poet. Figure 10: Kenneth Clark, Doctor Syntax sketching a lake, from Bicknell. Figure 11-12: Gilpin, Non-picturesque and picturesque mountain landscape.From Three Essays.

Figure 13: Sir George Beaumont, Landscape , from Bicknell. The Foreground: Keats. This section will firstly consider particular difficulties in approaching Keats and the Picturesque, moving then to Keats’ Picturesque view, its effects and influence. Thesis Form? The non-faddish longevity and ultimate importance of the Picturesque is finally determined. Wordsworth, born with and nurtured on the Picturesque, could never escape its influence and sustenance. Body Among Essay? Indeed, Wordsworth without the horace miner body among the nacirema Picturesque seems himself a destitute and picturesque half-starved figure. Horace Miner Body The Nacirema? Keats, although temporally distant from the eighteenth century Picturesque development, attempts to see with the cover phd position Picturesque vision, to adopt the general philosophy, providing compelling evidence against the standard cultist and faddish judgements offered by faddish modern literary scholars and serves as testimony not only to horace miner body among the nacirema essay the Picturesque’s diuturnity, but also its fundamental value. Careers That Writing Creativity? An examination of Keats in terms of the Picturesque, however, involves a number of initial problems. The Problem With Keats. Firstly, Keats (1795-1821) published his first solitary poem—“O Solitude,” in The Examiner —in 1816.

In simple terms, Keats came of age with landscape firmly entrenched as an aesthetic concept that required no further exploration. Ritual Among? The Picturesque, initially the thesis form only means of discovering landscape, now stood like an old well-travelled train puffing steam on miner body ritual among essay some siding. Landscape was omnipresent, on main lines and branch lines, an aesthetic form no longer solely the stuff of birds book, agriculture and ownership. This is not to horace body among the nacirema essay imply that exploration could no longer take place, only that the imperative was now only an implication. Secondly, the title of Keats’ first penned poem—“Imitations of Spenser” (1814)—suggests Keats’ propensity to look backwards, not particularly to the neo-classicist’s Golden Age—though his use of myth glances in that direction[48]—but most particularly to a Golden Age of English poetry: Spencer, Shakespeare, Milton. Not surprisingly, poetic drama and epic seemed the fairest genres. Thirdly, as Keats claims, his interest was in people not pictures: “Scenery is fine, but human nature is argumentative essay structure, finer” ( Letters , I, 242). However, as with Wordsworth, autotelic acceptance of such claims overlooks the need to mine more valid resources in other areas and ritual the nacirema essay, risk faulty and writing, perhaps fatal conclusions. Finally, Keat’s interest in language itself, in imagery and metaphor—in addition to the “felicity and variety” ( Letters , xxxi)—leads him towards the adoption of horace the nacirema essay, diction born of those same grand masters; as well as to the inevitable effect of the unexpected: his singular phraseology. Standard Picturesque idiom, by now somewhat hackneyed, is careers that writing creativity, unable to convey this effect and Keats’ early poetry provides the lion’s share of colloquialisms.

Further, it becomes quite clear quite soon that Keats’ goal was to horace body ritual among the nacirema essay depart from stylistic norms, particularly those of the miner ritual among the nacirema essay eighteenth century and achieve some degree of originality.[49] All this notwithstanding, the sustaining power of the body among the nacirema Picturesque—and so its importance—can still be discovered in both the life and works of Keats. “O Solitude,” reveals a vision of landscape which is particularly picturesque: O SOLITUDE! if I must with thee dwell, Let it not be among the jumbled heap. Of murky buildings; climb with me the steep,— Nature's observatory—whence the that writing creativity dell, Its flowery slopes, its river's crystal swell, May seem a span; let me thy vigils keep. ’Mongst boughs pavillion’d, where the deer’s swift leap.

Startles the body the nacirema essay wild bee from the fox-glove bell. But though I'll gladly trace these scenes with thee, Yet the sweet converse of an innocent mind, Whose words are images of thoughts refin’d, Is my soul's pleasure; and it sure must be. Almost the highest bliss of human-kind, When to thy haunts two kindred spirits flee.

Here, Keats paints no landscape with his words; rather, he adopts an attitude to nature which stems not from the southern regions close to home, but from the heartland of quintessential Picturesque scenery. It is here, amongst the cover letter phd position application steep windswept hills, the spilling streams, the dells and lonely haunts, that a true sense of sublime solitude is experienced. Rather than suggest unsupported influence, merely compare “O Solitude” with Wordsworth’s sonnet on the sonnet, “Nuns Fret Not At Their Convents’ Narrow Rooms,” clearly contextualised in the Lakelands: “. . . Among The Nacirema Essay? bees that soar for thesis form bloom, / High as the horace body highest Peak of Furness-fells, / Will murmur by cover, the hour in foxglove bells” (5-7). In “Sleep and Poetry” (1816), Keats demonstrates a simple gratification in simple Nature descriptions, beginning his description of Poesy—the highest calling—entirely in naturalistic terms: Should I rather kneel.

Upon some mountain-top until I feel. A glowing splendour round about me hung, And echo back the voice of thine own tongue? (49-52) Here the mountain top serves as altar to the poet-priest: both the material manifestation and the token picturesque echo of poetry’s voice, the situation and inspiration. This soon progresses to horace miner the nacirema a unclouded analogy between literature and landscape: Will be elysium—an eternal book. Whence I may copy many a lovely saying.

About the leaves, and flowers—about the playing. Of nymphs in woods, and essay education, fountains; and the shade. Keeping a silence round a sleeping maid. (63-68) The opening, “What is more gentle than a wind in summer” (1), “More healthful than the leafiness of dales?” (7) sets the initial tone: composed of body ritual among, a sappy repetition of feminine rhymes that describes entirely the sappy nature Keats first has in mind. The centre weight of “Sleep and book report, Poetry” is sweetness (the word sweet occurs ten times) rather than picturesqueness.

Interestingly, Poetry—the answer to this famous string of rhetorical interrogations—is described in terms familiar to the Picturesque. Ritual? There is the cover letter for a phd position beautiful: “beautiful,” “smooth,” “wings of a swan”; intermixed with the sublime: “awful,” “fearful claps of thunder,” “low rumblings,” and “sounds which will reach the Framer of all things.” Keats then once again rambles in his southern fields of “joy,” to “woo sweet kisses,” amongst fanciful “Flora”; all in horace essay all, “A lovely tale of human life.” Briefly, Poesy is itself a kind of Edenesque landscape, where the gentle white dove wafts its wings in cooling wind for the resting poet. And yet Keats knew such joys he must “. That Involve? . . pass . . Miner Ritual Among? . for a nobler life,” and there “find the agonies, the strife / Of human hearts. Essay Education? . . . (122-124). This re-introduces Poetry, this time in terms of “calling,” and again Keats offers images drawn from the picturesque landscape, eloquent as allegory for horace body ritual the nacirema essay the solitude, agonies and transience of the human experience: “cragginess”; “winds with glorious fear”; the sky is no longer filled with fluffy white, but “ a huge cloud's ridge”; there are now “mountains” filled with “Shapes of delight, of mystery, and fear.” Keats, aspires to become the powerful “charioteer,” understanding “the agonies, the careers involve creativity strife” of “thousands” of different men. Clearly and undeniably—and here we can be thankful that the miner ritual the nacirema literary jury who generally overlook Keats and the Picturesque are not only out to horace body essay lunch but almost completely out of the picture—Picturesque allusions best express those agonies, that strife. The final verse paragraphs provide an extra dimension, an miner ritual among, inventory of the birds report art decoration in his friend Hunt’s house situated within the larger context of poetic fancy. Landscape is reframed as landscape painting, providing an early indication of Keats’ frame of mind: his leanings toward art. It seems clear from all this that Keats already understands the symbolic value of the the nacirema picturesque scene: its ability to conjure up the essence of man’s existence: the beauty of youth coupled with the awful of age, that dialogue which utters mutual pity and ultimate evanescence.

At the same time there can be little doubt that Keat’s cheerful disposition at this time makes the Picturesque an uncertain subject. “I Stood Tip-Toe” (1816) offers another early effort at landscape poetry. Almost at once the view from the “little hill” becomes an exercise. To peer about upon variety; Far round the horizon's crystal air to skim, And trace the the thorn birds report dwindled edgings of its brim;

To picture out the quaint, and curious bending. Of a fresh woodland alley, never ending; Or by the bowery clefts, and leafy shelves, Guess where the miner the nacirema essay jaunty streams refresh themselves. (16-22) Unfortunately, there is no unity in Keats’ picture—despite the superlative editorial annotation of “pure nature-painting”—only a variegated catalogue of nature confused by occasional legends of Hellas and compounded by the thorn birds book report, relentless rhyming couplets. If the landscape speaks to Keats, the voice again has sappily sweet tendencies, as with the feminine rhyme, “Nature's gentle doings” which are “softer than ring-dove's cooings.” Even quintessential picturesque elements become, like “the quaint mossiness of aged roots,” quaint rather than symbolic or expressive. If Keats found any authentic feeling in this landscape, the poem offers barely a sigh. This becomes clear when we compare: My spirit is too weak—mortality. Weighs heavily on me like unwilling sleep, And each imagined pinnacle and steep.

Of godlike hardship tells me I must die. Like a sick eagle looking at the sky. (1-5) This contemplation comes not from the vision of landscape but “On First Seeing the Elgin Marbles,” written the following year. During this early period, then, Keats is more often touched in a vague spiritual sense not by horace ritual among, landscape nor nature but by art. As Maureen B. Roberts explains in her somewhat chimerical The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of John Keats : Within these few lines are themes and symbols which come to feature prominently in Keats’ mature poetry: the eagle as the transcendent victory of beauty—the vision of unity—over the “dizzy pain” of the “undesirable feud” of opposites; the motif of heaviness representing the two sided argumentative structure Gnostic “sleep” as imprisonment in the world, and miner body, sickness as the self-division which must be transcended in order to attain the ascent. (Roberts) Whatever the extent of Gnostic influence, the fact remains that the Elgin Marbles lead Keats inwards, towards fundamentals, while the tip-toe view results in little more than a dance through the tulips; indeed by letter phd position, the end of the poem we can only imagine Keats tired of his tip-toe prance. And yet, in “To Haydon,” written concomitantly with the Elgin Marble sonnet, Keats composed another in which he speaks of men who stare at sculptures “with browless idiotism.” The sonnet also includes: . . . forgive me that I cannot speak. Definitively of horace miner body ritual the nacirema, these mighty things; Forgive me that I have not eagle’s wings,

That what I want I know not where to thesis form seek. Miner Body Ritual Among Essay? (“To Haydon,” 3-6) Keats then is still searching, rambling, as we shall see, between the vicarious and cover, the actual. There is some certitude: the unbreakable link between landscape and poetry: “Some flowery spot, sequester'd, wild, romantic, / That often must have seen a poet frantic” (“Epistle to George Felton Mathew,” 37-8) [50] ; and the particularly evocative effects of picturesque scenery which speak to Keats of body ritual the nacirema essay, Poetry as vocation. Yet still the success education searching, which eventually will lead him towards the Picturesque. People not Pictures. March 13, 1818, Keats writes to his friend Bailey: “Give me a barren mould so I may meet with some shadowing of Alfred in the shape of a Gipsey, a Huntsman or as Shepherd.

Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” ( Letters , I, 242). As an addendum to this, Keats felt that the principal use of poetry was to sharpen “one’s vision into the heart and nature of man” (qtd. Bate, 337). Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? Although this seems to exclude any exploration of the Picturesque, Keats’ catalogue of report, characters are, perhaps inadvertently, certainly importantly, all of the Picturesque scene. Further, Turner’s series of Picturesque landscapes of England and Wales, which beyond doubt are Picturesque studies, nevertheless express the horace body ritual among idea that “man is as much a phenomenon of the thesis form natural world as are mountains, fields and oceans” (Shanes, 8). It seems clear that Keats, familiar with the beauty of southern landscape, still lacked in horace miner the nacirema any actual experience of the Picturesque sublime. An exhibition of the thesis form American painter, Benjamin West, where “. . . Keats was altogether receptive to horace body ritual among the nacirema any effort to attain the report ‘sublime’”(Bate, 243), featured one particular painting, “Death on the Pale Horse,” known for stirring such feelings. Keats was ultimately disappointed: . . . there is nothing to be intense upon; no women one feels mad to kiss; no face swelling into reality. . . . The excellence of every Art is its intensity, capable of making all disagreeable evaporate, from their being in miner body ritual close relationship with Beauty and Truth—Examine King Lear you will find this exemplified throughout. (qtd. Careers That Involve Creativity? Bate, 243)

Although this does underscore the focus of Keats’ main interest, his dissatisfaction with this painting seems singular. A letter to Reynolds (25 March, 1818), for example, contains the following: You know the Enchanted Castel, it doth stand. Upon a rock, on the border of horace miner body among, a Lake, Nested in trees,

A mossy place, a Merlin’s Hall, a dream. You know the clear lake, and the little Isles. The Mounts blue, See what is cover phd position application, coming from the distance dim! A golden galley all in silken trim.

O that our dreamings all, of among the nacirema, sleep or wake, Would all the colours from the argumentative structure sunset take. . Essay? . . ( Letters , 260-261) Keats explains in an endnote to this poem that his inspiration was Claude’s “Enchanted Castle” in “ Sacrifice to Apollo ” ( Letters , 263) . Further, Manwaring suggests that the same canvas was transmuted into certain lines of phd position application, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”—itself formed of pictures; and perhaps a sense of Claude is still heard in “. . Horace Miner Body Among Essay? . magic casements, opening on cover letter for a application the foam / Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn” (“Ode to ritual among essay a Nightingale, 69-70). Although Keats will discover a sense of sublimity in landscape during his 1818 Picturesque tour, art provided the source from which he would most often and most naturally drink. The sense of sublimity through the horace miner body ritual among the nacirema subjective contemplation of objects is common to the romantics, but Keats’ “Ode on horace miner among the nacirema a Grecian Urn” demonstrates his variance with Wordsworth: for Keats it is the Urn rather than Nature which provides lessons of truth.

And yet there is a striking similarity, for the main theme is essay success, not the figures on the Urn but the poet’s own response. The “Scenery is fine, but human nature is finer” notion requires further definition: Keats, by his own confession, states: “. . Horace Body Ritual Among Essay? . my head is sometimes in such a whirl in essay success education considering the million likings and horace miner among essay, antipathies of horace ritual among the nacirema, our Moments” ( Letters , 324); “I carry all matters to an extreme—so that when I have any little vexation it grows in five minutes into a theme for the nacirema essay Sophocles” ( Letters , 340). In other words, his youthful mind changes with the frequency of English weather. His comment here is in particular reference to landscape scenes seen in writing real life: the the nacirema letter was written during a prolonged stay in two sided Devonshire, during a period described as, “splashy, rainy, misty snowy, foggy haily floody, muddy. . . .” ( Letters , 241). Even if we willingly expand his scenery/human nature comment to all landscapes and all sunny days—the effect, for example, of offering the quotation without the among context in among the nacirema essay order to prove a point—as ridiculous as this might seem, there still remains, as suggested by the “Gipsey,” “Huntsman” and “Shepherd,” the horace miner ritual Picturesque character . The Picturesque Tour [51] We have so far seen reasons why a Picturesque Tour was long on the books, not least of which is the fact that literature cannot be writ from an exploration only of literature. [52] Keats’ keen literary vision and his initial rural blindness are unwittingly confessed in “To one who has been long in city pent”: To one who has been long in city pent, ’Tis very sweet to look into the fair.

And open face of heaven,—to breathe a prayer. Full in the smile of the cover for a phd position blue firmament. Who is more happy, when, with heart’s content, Fatigued he sinks into some pleasant lair. Of wavy grass, and reads a debonair. And gentle tale of love and languishment. (1-8) Certainly there is pleasure in body ritual the nacirema this dulcet southern domain, though finally, typically, Keats turns his full attention to a book. Sidney K. Robinson, Inquiry into the Picturesque , repudiating the absurdity of comparing landscapes with paintings, states: For the Picturesque, of course, studying paintings and that involve writing creativity, books was the clearest recognition that designing the landscape was a complex amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by nature with the patterns of arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind. (Robinson 103) Although the body ritual the nacirema essay connection might seem somewhat tenuous, designing poetry is equally “an amalgam of raw sensory patterns supplied by thesis form, nature with the patterns of miner body ritual the nacirema, arrangement and selection inherent in the operation of the human mind.” Keats had studied literature and thesis form, now the necessity of experiencing raw nature at first hand could no longer be denied. By mid 1818, Keats realised “there is something else wanting to one who passes his life among Books and thoughts on Books” (qtd.

Bate, 340). In April, Keats proposed. within a Month to put my knapsack at my back and make a pedestrian tour through the North of England, and part of Scotland—to make a sort of Prologue to horace miner body essay the Life I intend to pursue. Horace Miner Among? . . . ( Letters , 264) As a citizen of the romantic province, experiencing nature at length and ritual among the nacirema essay, up-close was a moral imperative, not only because other poets had trod that path, but because nature, especially the grander and awful, are essential for thesis form imaginative energy. Keats knew this and Keats went a-wandering. Horace Miner Among The Nacirema Essay? In late June, his travelling companion, Charles Brown, wrote in his journal: The country was wild and romantic, the weather fine, though not sunny, while the fresh mountain air, and many larks about horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay, us, gave us unbounded delight. As we approached the lake, the scenery became more grand and beautiful; and from time to time we stayed our steps, gazing intently on it. Miner Body Ritual Among? Hitherto, Keats had witness nothing superior to Devonshire; but, beautiful as that is, he was now tempted to speak with indifference. At the first turn from the essay success road, before descending to miner body ritual the nacirema essay the hamlet of Bowness, we both simultaneously came to body ritual essay a full stop.

The lake [Windermere] lay before us. His bright eyes darted on ritual the nacirema essay a mountain-peak, beneath which was gently floating a silver cloud; thence to a very small island, adorned with the foliage of trees, that lay beneath us, and surrounded by water of a glorious hue, when he exclaimed: “How can I believe in that?—surely it cannot be!” He warmly asserted that no view in the world could equal this—that it must beat all Italy. ( Letters , 425-426) (See figure 14. ) It is perhaps difficult for the sensorially saturated modern to imagine the provocativity and, yes, the sublimity, of such landscape; this lengthy extract, however, makes clear the power of the Picturesque, temporally contextualised, when such scenes were relatively unfamiliar.[53] In a sense, we have here the spectacular importance of the Picturesque, an indication of why a revolution it caused in essay education aesthetics and art; and the comparison with Italy—the fountain-head from horace miner body essay which swelled the Picturesque—is beyond doubt no chancy happening. Keats’ own record of the ritual tour, his correspondence, is equally mottled with superlatives: What astonishes me more than anything is the miner among the nacirema essay tone, the creativity colouring, the slate, the stone, the moss, the rock-weed; or, if I may so say, the intellect, the countenance of such places. The space, the horace miner the nacirema magnitude of mountains and waterfalls are well imagined before one sees them; but this countenance or intellectual tone must surpass every imagination and cover, defy any remembrance. Horace Miner Ritual Essay? ( Letters , 301) (See figure 15.) [54] Here then Keats finally discovers the Picturesque (note the catalogue) as well as its associational value. Paraphrasing Archibold Alison, Hipple states: “An object is picturesque if it is the thorn report, such as to miner ritual among the nacirema awaken a train of associations additional to cover phd position application what the scene as a whole is calculated to excite” (164). Again, the picturesque then is a term whether in landscape, painting or literature which has everything to do with associationism; and we see that Price’s attempt to divorce the term from its reference to body among essay pictorial representation is by essay, no means peculiar. Miner Among The Nacirema? [55] Keats, clearly, has imagined such scenes, imagines them as he hikes, and yet the intellect seems suddenly insignificant once confronted with the actual. Structure? Keats goes on horace body essay to tell Tom: I shall learn poetry here and shall henceforth write more than ever, for the abstract endeavour of being able to add a mite to that mass of beauty which is harvested from these grand materials, by the finest spirits, and put into essay success education, etherial existence for horace miner body among the nacirema the relish of one’s fellows. I cannot think with Hazlitt that these scenes make man appear little.

I never forgot my stature so completely—I live in the eye; and my imagination, surpassed, is at rest. (301) There is too much for coincidence in essay these two passages: to “defy remembrance,” to “live in miner ritual among the eye,” to “forget my stature,” besides an echoing of negative capability, is clearly to defy Wordsworth—an assertion that though perhaps he follows in horace miner body ritual among the nacirema essay the old poet’s footsteps, he will find his own way in the Picturesque. Indeed, Keats himself admits this point: As to the poetical Character itself, (I mean that sort of which, if I am anything, I am a Member; that sort distinguished from the wordsworthian or egotistical sublime; which is a thing per miner body ritual among se and stands alone) it is not itself—it has no self—it is everything and nothing. ( Letters , 386-7) In a similar vein, Keats comments on Windermere, which makes. . . . one forget the divisions of life; age, youth, poverty and riches; and refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star which can never cease to be open lidded and steadfast over the wonders of the great Power. ( Letters , 299) [56] At the end of horace body among, June, Keats visits the “Druids’ Circle.” Gilpin, in his tour of the Lakes, discovered this same temple, which he admits is not particularly picturesque, though conjured up pictures of Druid priests and ritual sacrifice. A romantic fancy? Surely not! The pit-falls, obstacles and hardships of the tour increasingly insinuate themselves into his correspondence.

Brown was a veteran hiker. For Keats—by no means weak-kneed nor namby-pamby—the going becomes too tough. Body Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? The Picturesque of northern Britain is a landscape of antagonistic elements, gentleness is that writing creativity, anathema, where the only comfort can come from discomfort. All this, compounded with climactic and topographical alienness, becomes apparent in “On Visiting the Tomb of horace body ritual essay, Burns,” written during the tour: The town, the churchyard, and the setting sun, The clouds, the trees, the rounded hills all seem, Though beautiful, cold—strange—as in a dream, I dreamed long ago, now new begun. The short-liv’d, paly Summer is horace miner body, but won.

From Winter’s ague, for one hour’s gleam; Though sapphire-warm, their stars do never beam: All is cold Beauty, pain is never done: For who has mind to relish, Minos-wise, The Real of Beauty, free from horace miner ritual the nacirema that dead hue. Sickly imagination and sick pride. Cast wan upon careers involve creativity it? Burns! with honour due. I oft have honour’d thee.

Great shadow, hide. Thy face; I sin against the native skies. Miner Body Among The Nacirema Essay? ( Letters , 308) Although largely a fault finding mission, a remonstrance, penned by a southerner spoiled by careers that creativity, languid southern summer sunshine and summer warmth, there is here, as there is horace miner body among the nacirema essay, not in “I Stood Tiptoe” and other early poems, an authentic sense of feeling, a sense of being touched by two sided essay, landscape and horace ritual among, nature, a genuineness that foreshadows “Ode to Melancholy.” There is also an important associational element, translating to the problem of judging beauty when both our judgement and beauty itself are tinged with the omnipresence of brevity and death. If the education northern summer is only a brief delivery from winter, then what of our lives? The headiness of the first fine weather days are followed by miner essay, an account of a country dance, which Keats concludes with what is body ritual the nacirema essay, becoming a familiar refrain: “This is what I like better than scenery” ( Letters , 307).

In Scotland he writes: “I know not how it is, the Clouds, the sky, the horace miner ritual among Houses, all seem anti Grecian anti Charlemagnish—I will endeavour to get rid of my prejudices, tell you fairly about the Scotch” ( Letters , 309). At the same time, there is a clue to Keats’ understanding of picturesqueness: “The barefooted Girls look very much in keeping—I mean with the letter for a phd position Scenery about them. . . . Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema? They are very pleasant because they are very primitive” ( Letters , 318-19). Careers That? Steeped in body ritual among the nacirema literature, with much of his experience experienced vicariously, Keats can never entirely lose his prejudice. As hinted above, Keats takes great delight in picturesque characters: Imagine the worst dog kennel you ever saw placed upon two poles from a mouldy fencing—In such a wretched thing sat a squalid old woman squat like an ape half starved from a scarcity of Biscuit in birds book report its passage from Madagascar to ritual among essay the cape,—with a pipe in her mouth and looking out with a round eyed skinny lidded, inanity—with a sort of horizontal idiotic movement of her head—squat and lean she sat and horace miner body ritual among, puffed out the smoke while two ragged tattered Girls carried her along. ( Letters , 321-2) Notice the skill with which Keats intensifies the picturesque effect: the mixed dog/ape metaphor, the alliteration and repetition.

This, certainly, is a different Picturesque, though nonetheless Picturesque. The detachment we witnessed in Wordsworth—that frequent remoteness from the real trials and tribulations of country life—is also manifest in ritual among the nacirema essay Keats. John Clare, Keats’ contemporary, similarly notes: . . . his descriptions of scenery are often very fine but as it is the case with other inhabitants of education, great cities he often described nature as she appeared in his fancies not as he would have described her had he witnessed the body ritual among the nacirema things he describes—Thus it is he has often undergone the thesis form stigma of Cockneyism what appears as beautys in the eyes of a pent-up citizen are looked upon as conceits by those who live in the country—these are merely errors but even here they are merely the horace miner body the nacirema errors of poetry—he is often mystical but such poetical licences have been looked on as beauties in Wordsworth Shelley and in Keats they may be forgiven. (qtd. Watson, 23) The idea that such romanticisms are “merely errors of poetry” is indicative of the times, a kind of Claudian perspective where both the Picturesque and poetic vision could often turn a blind eye to social reality and see instead a dislocated ideal. The subject then is not merely inaccuracy in “descriptions of scenery” but the general anti-utilitarianism of romantic poetry.

This, it seems, is thesis form, much more “comic and miner among essay, faddish” (Brownlow, 43) than learning to appreciate landscape through painting. It is also entirely common to all the essay structure romantic poets. Again, to quote Clare: And een the miner body fallow fields appear so fair. The very weeds make sweetest gardens there.

And summer there puts garments on so gay. I hate the plow that comes to dissaray. And man the only object that disdains. Earths garden into deserts for his grains. Leave him his schemes of gain—tis wealth to thesis form me. Wild heaths to trace—and not their broken tree. Which lightening shivered—and which nature tries.

To keep alive for poesy to prize. (Clare, 80) Interestingly, however, such romanticism of country life is miner body among, often omitted during the two sided structure tour, where Keats comes face to horace miner ritual face with the squalor—and a foreign squalor to essay success such a southerner—of poverty and often describes it in miner ritual among empathetic or political terms: On our walk in Ireland we had too much opportunity to see the worse than nakedness, the rags, the dirt and misery of the poor common Irish—A Scotch cottage, though in that some times the Smoke has no exit but at the door, is horace miner body ritual, a palace to an Irish one. ( Letters , 321) There is horace miner among essay, perhaps some implication that a philosophical shift occurs in moving from poetry to prose, as if the picturesque vanishes with the replacement of smock for Wellington boots and overalls, a justification for the might of “modern” prose. The subject of Keats’ complaint was also the subject of a Picturesque sub-category: the Gainsboroughesque “cottage Picturesque,” where sublimity is two sided argumentative essay structure, replaced by romantic rusticity, where such squalor is marked by its absence: in essence, a gentle Picturesque (see figure 16 ). In a gasping effort at brevity, much has been overlooked. In summary, Keats’ correspondence during the tour is miner ritual, overgrown with the Picturesque, from poems such as “Ailsa Rock” (see figure 17) and “Ben Nevis,”—which, in its stumbling uncertainty, seem neither a Ben nor a Nevis—to comments such as “evey [sic] ten steps creating a new and beautiful picture—sometimes through little woods—there are two islands on the Lake each with a beautiful ruin—one of them rich in ivy ( Letters , 338). [57] In early August, after covering 642 horizontal and vertical miles in sometimes cold wet conditions with sometimes poor food and two sided argumentative essay structure, indifferent accommodation, after suffering a fortnight from a cold and sore throat, Keats abandoned the tour and left his friend to continue alone. [58]

Watson—in his singular modern study of Keats and horace ritual among the nacirema essay, the Picturesque, which continues the standard criticism instituted with Wordsworth—provides a succinct panorama of the refracted light of influence the Picturesque tour radiates over Hyperion , and there is no need therefore to offer excessive focus. Horace Miner Body Among Essay? [60] In summary, Watson points out that the horace miner among the nacirema power of the poem stems from horace miner body the nacirema Keats’ “mythologising imagination” and the sublime “terrifying landscapes which form the background for the colossal figures” (155). But the picturesque, in horace miner ritual the nacirema addition to miner body ritual among the nacirema background, also serves as a form of characterisation, externalising the internal: . . . where their own groans. They felt, but heard not, for horace body ritual among the nacirema the solid roar. Of thunderous waterfalls and torrents hoarse. Pouring a constant bulk, uncertain where. Crag jutting forth to thesis form crag, and rocks that seem’d. Ever as if just rising from a sleep,

Forehead to forehead held their monstrous horns; And thus in a thousand hugest phantasies. Made a fir roofing to miner the nacirema essay this nest of woe. (II,6-14) On similar lines, “The quiet sublime imbues the sorrow-worn face of Moneta within the temple of Western memory built by book, Keats in The Fall of Hyperion ” (Woodring, 40). There are, however, a few additional points which Watson fails to note.

Firstly, the poem opens with Saturn and Thea postured “. Horace Body Among The Nacirema? . . motionless / Like natural sculpture in cathedral cavern” (I.85-86). The scene is represented through copious visual images at the expense the auditory. Recollecting, “I live in the eye” from his picturesque tour, there is some hint of the visual memories which form the scenery of Hyperion’s stage. The “fallen divinity” of Saturn exists in cover letter application a mythico-historical landscape formed of the transcendental imagination and nature experienced during the tour: the “thousand hugest phantasies.” Watson’s closing comment—“ Ode to Autumn originated in horace miner ritual the nacirema essay the Hampshire harvest-time, not on a Lakeland mountain; and two sided essay structure, the nightingale, like Keats, sings only in the south of England” (157)—scores high marks for rhetorical tune and poetic twang; unfortunately, it is falsely based upon the premise that the Picturesque is heterogeneous to Hampshire as well as drawing attention to his ornithological dullness. Following the Picturesque Tour, Watson states: “. . . and there, apart from Canto I of The Fall of Hyperion , Keats turned his back upon the picturesque for ever” (157). Although, again, rhetorically right and horace ritual essay, conforming to the standard ignominiously moulded analysis of the two sided argumentative structure Picturesque, this is not, in actual fact, the case. The influence of Claude’s Sacrifice to horace miner ritual among the nacirema Apollo on “Grecian Urn” and “Ode to a Nightingale” has already been mentioned. Essay Education? In more general terms, and miner body among, as Bate mentions: “It is interesting to note the number of spontaneous phrases and images in his letters now that are later echoed in the poetry, especially in the Odes“ (358). Thesis Form? Although instances are numerous, a couple will prove the point. In terms of diction, compare: “There is horace miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, no great body of water, but the the thorn book accompaniment is delightful; for it ooses out from a cleft in perpendicular Rocks, all fledged with Ash. . .” ( Letters , 306) with, “ Fledge the wild-ridged mountains steep by steep” (“Ode to Psyche,” 55).

In terms of a specific memory, compare the excursion to horace ritual the nacirema essay Ambleside waterfall: “. . . Careers Involve? it is buried in trees, in the bottom of the among valley—the stream itself is interesting” ( Letters , 300), with, “. . . over the still stream, / Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep / In the next valley” (“Ode to a Nightingale,” 76-8). The Picturesque continued to work through Keats’ poetry: not always clearly; but the lines still are drawn. Recalling Keats’ comments on first seeing Windermere, which included “refine ones sensual vision into a sort of north star,” we move easily to its later transmutation: Bright star, would I were stedfast as thou art- Not in lone splendour hung aloft the night, And watching, with eternal lids apart, Like nature’s patient, sleepless Eremite, The moving waters at their priestlike task.

Of pure ablution round earth’s human shores, Or gazing on the new soft-fallen mask. Of snow upon argumentative structure the mountains and the moors; No-yet still stedfast, still unchangeable, Pillow’d upon my fair love’s ripening breast, To feel for ever its soft fall and horace miner among the nacirema, swell, Awake for ever in a sweet unrest, Still, still to for a phd position application hear her tender-taken breath, And so live ever-or else swoon to death. ( Complete Poems , 329) One of the problems of looking at Keats in a Picturesque context, as mentioned above, is ritual among the nacirema essay, his unwillingness to adopt standard phraseologies, choosing instead to create fresh imagery. Although this is two sided structure, indeed a “problem,” it is body ritual, also a solution.

Knight was perhaps the that most adamant proponent of “novelty” in Picturesque scenes. A vast expanse of body ritual, lawn is boring not simply for its smoothness, but for its lack of for a phd position, surprise. Among The Nacirema? Abrupt variation produces mixture through novelty. Richard Payne Knight recognised the salutary effect of “irritation” as an interruption of sensations that had become “stale and vapid” through repetition. (Robinson, 7) It seems fair therefore to thesis form suggest that poetic coinings—“large dome curtains,” ( Hyperion ) and “massy range” ( Fall of Hyperion ), for example—are a form of such abrupt variation producing mixture through novelty. In a sense, Keats’ poetical methodology stems directly from the lessons of the Picturesque, at least in terms of “the noble metaphor, when it is placed to Advantage, casts a kind of Glory round it, and darts a Lustre through the whole sentence” (qtd. Robinson, 9). That dart of lustre provides the interruption, the irritation, the unexpected that is “novelty.” This is key not only to the Picturesque but to much of horace miner essay, Keats’ better poetry.

Although perhaps out on strechified limb, in danger of barking up the wrong tree, the suggestion merely provides some indication of the thesis form less obvious influence of the Picturesque. Body? Hipple points out that the term “picturesque” can and is used solely as a literary term: “Blaire,” he says as a case in point, “repeatedly praises epithets, figures and descriptions as ‘picturesque’ as conjuring up distinct and forcible images.” (186) Indeed, compared with Robinson’s analogy between the complexity and letter for a phd position, mixture of the Picturesque and identical constituents of the 18th century Whig party, (“Compositions of Politics and horace body ritual essay, Money”)—the picturesque here seems more associated with the wig than the party—the claim seems modest enough. The Liberty of the Picturesque. The difficulty of defining romanticism, which we have deliberately over-looked, stems of thesis form, course from the diversity of poetry, of miner body among, styles, of influences and of diction of cover letter for a phd position, romantic poets. Body Ritual Among The Nacirema? That variety is itself a product of the times and the liberty that the essay success education Picturesque supported—liberty both in the political and personal sense. Knight, in Progress of horace among the nacirema essay, a Civil Society , points out the connection between the picturesque landscape garden—and by extension, the Picturesque in general—and the composition of society:

As when in formal lines, exact and true, The pruner’s scissors shear the ductile yew, Amused, its shape and symmetry we see, But seek in vain the for a phd position application likeness of horace body ritual the nacirema essay, a tree; And while the artist’s pleasing skill we trace, Lament the loss of every native grace: So when too strictly social habits bind, The native vigour of the roving mind, Pleased, the well-ordered system we behold.

Its justly regulated parts unfold, But search in vain its complicated plan. To find the native semblance of a man, And, ’midst the charms of horace body ritual among essay, equal rule, deplore. The loss of graces art can ne’er restore. (qtd. Robinson, 134) In a sense, an examination of the Picturesque in the context of horace miner body among essay, its influence on romanticism—even when fairness, as here, is the ultimate goal—does a certain injustice to the subject and filters out much of the important material. Thus, for example, the liberating effect seems somewhat arbitrary. Hipple, in The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque , occupies a unique position in modern Picturesque analysis, going beyond the positivism of thesis form, art historians and suggesting that the Picturesque is consequential in and of horace miner the nacirema, itself.

Although Hipple rarely ventures beyond summary and conflation of for a phd position application, individual Picturesque theories, his treatise is comprehensive, detailed and horace miner ritual among the nacirema, offers an important concluding point: The aestheticians of this period [eighteenth century] all found their subject to be psychological: the central problem for them was not some aspect of the cosmos or of particular substances, nor was it found among the characteristics of the thorn birds book report, human activity or of the modes of symbolic representation; one and all, they found their problem to be the specification and discrimination of certain kinds of feelings, the determination of the body ritual among essay mental powers and susceptibilities which yielded those feelings, and of the impressions and ideas which excited them. Essay Success? (305) Although the Picturesque, despite Hipple’s unqualified assertion, does indeed concern itself with particular substances: the elemental material of a scene; and with human activity: the hiking and picturesque tours, the picturesque guide books and plain and simple painting and horace miner body essay, poetry; and with modes of cover for a, symbolic representation: the ritual the nacirema essay Picturesque itself is a mode of symbolic representation; Hipple’s stress upon the psychological basis is nevertheless an important point, especially when we look forward to the psychological aspect of romantic poetry. One of the difficulties with the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system; the saving grace of the Picturesque is that it never became a unified system. It is careers that involve writing, fundamentally concerned with the native vigour of the roving mind, allowing for nature and art to stroll arm in arm, allowing and even insisting upon the liberty of variety and change: the liberty then of Wordsworth and Keats. Keats, for all his youth and gentle disposition, found the horace miner among essay Picturesque health threatening to thesis form walk through and almost anomalistic to incorporate in his verse; as a serious poet with ambitions of immortality, [61] he nevertheless realised its essentiality to his artistic development. As Robinson explains: “Picturesque colors are not fresh, delicate ones of spring, but those of autumn whose age and decay bespeak fullness and repose tinged with memory and the sharpness of abrupt terminations” (101). Miner Body Ritual Among? Keats then is seeking, not for something to ritual essay save his life, but his immortality. Keats never reached an essay, age when these colours could clearly be seen and careers that involve creativity, so we find glimpses here and there and the constant desire to “bid these joys farewell”: those bright colours of youth. Figure 14: Joseph Farington, Windermere, from Watson. Figure 15: Joseph Farington, The Waterfall at Rydal , from Watson (visited by Keats)

Figure 16: Francis Wheatly (1747-1801), Girls washing in a stream, from Bicknell. Figure 17: Ailsa rock, from Bate. Four years after the death of Keats, engraver and body ritual among the nacirema, publisher Charles Heath and Turner came “to an agreement that Turner would produce a large quantity of cover for a, water-colours over a number of among the nacirema essay, years, from which Charles Heath would choose 120 to be line-engraved and subsequently published under the title of “Picturesque Views in England and Wales.”(Shanes, 5) The Picturesque, even at this date, remains a vital force that warrants the attention of England’s finest artist. Indeed, “Turner was undoubtedly at the height of his mature creative powers during the years of this series”(Shanes, 17) The implied perception of the romantic movement as a reaction against eighteenth century neo-classicism or, at the other extreme, as spontaneous literary combustion torched by Wordsworth’s egotistical sublime is prescriptivism unleashed, offering barely the bare bones of a story. It is neither immaterial nor coincidental that the thesis form 1770s—the decade of ritual among, Wordsworth’s birth—also saw the beginnings of careers involve, English landscape painting as a major genre, signifying not only a general artistic reaction but also attraction . The eighteenth century saw landscape modified from traditional perceptions of ownership, agriculture and trial and trouble to aesthetic material.

This then is the general Picturesque canvass. Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema Essay? The Picturesque movement, in providing the initial way of seeing landscape actually encouraged the the thorn birds book report viewing of body the nacirema, landscape, opening the scenery of England to enthusiastic travellers in search of the Picturesque and finally revealing what had always been there though never before seen. This suddenly seen landscape was no longer lit by thesis form, the golden light of a fanciful Golden Age; no longer mottled with classical sylvan shadows, where Pope’s “Fair Thames, flow gently from thy sacred spring, / While on horace ritual among thy banks Sicilian Muses sing”; no longer a continuation of the birds book report Works and Days of Hesiod nor theories of Theocritus: now the horace miner ritual the nacirema essay Island’s landscape might be seen in common light, casting its own shadow, peopled by the thorn, common people born and bred, the works and days of horace ritual essay, a new age. In addition to thesis form this aesthetic revolution, the heightened status of landscape provided an environment in which nature, the body among the nacirema individual elements of landscape—already of increasing importance by thesis form, virtue of developments in miner ritual among the nacirema the natural sciences—might find its aesthetic value enlarged. The Picturesque movement proved its importance and horace miner the nacirema essay, viability by its very popularity and success.

Picturesque theory intellectualised landscape, transforming it into something that could only be truly appreciated through learning, just as neo-classicism had done previously, though now it was no longer classical learning but aesthetic learning that was sought; and miner body among the nacirema, the focus was decidedly the landscape itself rather than a superimposed classicism. It this manner, it was increasingly intellectually acceptable to study landscape, in painting, in success poetry, and in pastime. As Christopher Hussey suggests in The Picturesque : The picturesque view of nature was the new, the ritual among essay only, way of deriving aesthetic satisfaction from landscape. Previously, Englishmen had simply failed to connect scenery and painting in their minds. They had liked certain views and that involve creativity, certain lights, just as all men like sunshine and verdure, for their own sakes.

But landscape as such gave them no aesthetic satisfaction. Among Essay? (2) The notion of complete detachment from an miner among the nacirema, aesthetic appreciation of horace body ritual the nacirema, scenery—essentially the unfamiliarity of the familiar—seems, at least at first glance, rooted in a certain outlandishness. Essay? Additional proof comes from Wordsworth himself, who lodged for a time near Derwentwater. under the roof of a shrewd and sensible woman, who more than once exclaimed in my hearing, “Bless me! folk [picturesque tourists] are always talking about prospects: when I was young there never was sic a thing neamed.” (qtd. Andrews, 153-4) On a hike through Wales, Uvedale Price came upon a series of horace miner body ritual among the nacirema essay, natural cascades and expressed his delight to the landowner: He was quite uneasy at the pleasure I felt, and seemed afraid I should waste my admiration. “Don’t stop at these things,” said he, “I will shew you by and by cover for a phd position application, one worth seeing.” At last we came to a part where the brook was conducted down three long steps of miner body essay, hewn stone: “There,” said he, with great triumph, “that was made by Edwards, who built Pont y pridd, and it is reckoned as neat a piece of mason-work as any in horace body ritual essay the country.” (qtd. Robinson, 11)

Neither is this detachment merely a fact of by-gone days: During a recent journey to England, crossing the North Yorkshire Moors in the company of a local retired farmer, I was struck immediately by the picturesque landscape: a region of sudden chasms, blasted trees and weathered rocky outcrops, of bumbling uncertain stone cottages and horace miner ritual among essay, barns and shaggy sheep. My companion was indifferent to its charms. Suddenly, all about the meandering road, we came upon an area quite changed, unusually verdant, with thick hedge-rows and trees full grown and full leafed--and decidedly less picturesque. The farmer suddenly came to life. “I did all this,” he began, with an letter application, all embracing wave of his hand. “It used to be like all the rest, now’t bar rocks. Look at it now though.” For the miner body ritual among next several miles he lectured on his “improvements,” singing praise of its cultivated nature and that, even claiming to body among essay have caused changes in local climate! Soon we re-entered the picturesque and protected national park. “Now, just look at that,” he scoffed with a disdainful shake of his head. “It’s bloody awful.”

The Picturesque was, further, a ubiquitous movement which sought to understand the nature of aesthetic perception and to provide prescriptions which essentially affected an entirely new appreciation for the wild wilderness of places such as the Cumbrian Lake District. Finally, we should not discount the political and social overtones: the license it provided for careers that liberalism, for miner body ritual among the nacirema essay variety, for change, for originality. For all its seriousness, Picturesque musings were wont to wander into regions of absurdity, sometimes finding their way into the real world, as with Charles Hamilton’s hiring of a hermit to sit in his back garden hermitage; or the estate village of Old Warden in Bedforshire where, in thesis form the early nineteenth century, the residents were cajoled into wearing red cloaks and tall hats to horace miner ritual among the nacirema harmonise with the red paint work and involve writing, charming dormers of their cottages. In the fictional world, this absurdity was also made apparent: A lecture on the picturesque immediately followed, in which his instruction were so clear the she soon began to horace miner body among the nacirema essay see beauty admired by him, and her attention was so earnest, that he became perfectly satisfied of her having a great deal of natural taste. He talked of fore-grounds, distances, and second distances--side-screens and perspectives--lights and essay, shades;--and Catherine was so hopeful a scholar that when they gained the top of Beechen Cliff, she voluntarily rejected the whole city of Bath, as unworthy to body among the nacirema essay make part of a landscape. (Austen 138) Indeed, the very pith of Picturesque theory might, to the cynical—and especially literary minded—modern, seems daubed with inanity, for it sought to mix landscape and essay, painting, allowing the appreciation of a real scene for its likeness to art, rather than art for its likeness to a real scene—a notion which Hugh Sykes Davies, Wordsworth and the Worth of Words , finds particularly “unnatural.” The important thing to remember here, however, is that this was, plain and simple, the only way into landscape, the horace miner only way to see the invisibly visible.

Such satire stemmed from the excesses of the Picturesque movement and the jocularity sometimes manifest in the debate, and is not a suggestion of ignis-fatuus . Further, as Hussey explains, “the picturesque interregnum between classical and romantic art was necessary in essay order to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eyes” (4). It is unfortunate the modern reading of the Picturesque has turned a blind eye to the real meaning of Picturesque and horace miner body ritual the nacirema essay, adopted the more authoritative expression of Wordsworth himself as well as satirical expression by writers such as Austin and education, William Combe. And yet the body ritual among the nacirema ridiculous that some have found in the Picturesque is found equally in those that find it. J. R. Watson, for example, provides a fitting conclusion: after a quotation in which Coleridge writes of a rocky climbing episode, he writes: “In both Wordsworth and Coleridge there is an the thorn birds book report, exhalation at the danger and excitement . . Essay? . the danger was there. . . . Gilpin penetrated into the valley beyond Rosthwaite, but did not consider it practicable to birds go further” (186). Ritual Essay? So there we have it: the romantic poets were much braver than those mere writers on the Picturesque! And this is good. Watson admits, however, that Coleridge “exaggerated the dangers in thesis form his letter” (187)! Equally, the idea that the horace miner the nacirema essay Picturesque had already run its course well before Wordsworth offered the final denunciating blow is patently absurd. We have already seen how Keats required some close experience of the Picturesque in order to further develop his poetic potential.

We can remove further, both temporarily and geographically: Blake Nevius, in his slim volume, Cooper’s Landscapes , argues convincingly that the Picturesque strongly influenced his pictorial sense and description subsequent to his 1826-1833 stay in Europe: What Cooper as a visual artist learned from thesis form his travels on horace miner ritual among the nacirema the continent is apparent in success education the later romances. His sharper awareness of pictorial values to be sought in the natural landscape and of the means by miner body ritual among the nacirema, which these values could be introduced into imagined landscape is most evident . . . in thesis form the forest romances written after his return. (89) We move forward in time, we cross the Atlantic, we leap from poetry to prose, yet still the miner body ritual among the nacirema essay Picturesque remains, exerting its influence. The Picturesque, popularised by the illustrated guides, general debate, fashionable sketching tours, the national fealty of Gainsborough’s work and so on, portrayed a populist and recognisable landscape. Moving away from seventeenth and early eighteenth century depictions of myth-laden Italian scenes, the phd position Picturesque embraced rustic England and adopted a visual idiom from common life.

Bermingham’s suggestion that the horace body ritual the nacirema essay concomitant “. . . improvement in real landscape, increasing its agricultural yield, raised its commercial and monetary worth” (1), provides a pragmatic exegesis for the new picturesque fashion and underscores changing cultural values. If agricultural developments—enclosure, consolidation of small holdings and so on—endowed land with new nummary worth, they also caused the physical transformation of large tracts of countryside, working at odds with the increasing sense of argumentative essay structure, cultural and aesthetic worth. As a result, remote rustic regions such as Cumbria’s Lake District, were discovered as “ . . . the image of the homely, the stable, the miner the nacirema essay ahistorical” (Birmingham 9). If at the last of the century—beginning with Cowper—there came poets and painters who . Letter Phd Position? . . Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema? found beauty in hedge-rows and corn-fields, and in Hampstead and Mousehold Heaths, it was because of a long training in book report seeing landscape pictorially,—a training which of necessity began with the most elaborate and heightened forms of landscape, with the richest and most obvious appeal, and on the most vast and impressive scale. (Manwaring, 232) The importance of the Picturesque stems from the fostering of an intellectual approach to the appreciation of architecture, gardening and miner ritual among essay, scenery which in turn opened up new vistas of essay success, artistic subjects. The emphasis upon feeling and body ritual the nacirema essay, associational values which grew from analysis of the sublime and beautiful and blossomed in the Picturesque finally allowed those new vistas to be expressed in essay success education subjective and romantic terms. Horace Miner Body Ritual Among? Romanticism, then, was, to a large degree, the application natural development of Picturesque aesthetics. Of course, the story continues: Ted Hughes, (1930-) born in West Yorkshire and appointed poet laureate in 1984, has written several volumes which testify to the renewed interest in topographical poetry. And all my holiday snapshots are Picturesque.

Andrews, Malcolm. The Search for the Picturesque: landscape aesthetics and tourism in horace body ritual Britain, 1760-1800 . Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1989. Austen, Jane. Northanger Abbey . Miner Body Ritual Among The Nacirema? New York: Dell, 1962. Bate, Walter Jackson. John Keats . Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of miner among, Harvard University Press, 1963. Benedict, Barbara M. Careers Involve Creativity? Making the Modern Reader: cultural mediation in early modern literary anthologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996. Bermingham, Ann. Landscape and Ideology: the English rustic tradition, 1740-1860 . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986.

Bicknell, Peter. Beauty, Horror and Immensity: Picturesque Landscape in Britain , 1750-1850. Horace Essay? Cambridge: The Museum, 1981. Brownlow, Timothy. John Clare and Picturesque Landscape . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983. Combe, William. Doctor Syntax his three tours: in search of the picturesque, of consolation, of a wife . London: F. Essay Success Education? Warne, 1890. Davies, Hugh Sykes. W ordsworth and the Worth of Words. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Dayes, Edward, A Picturesque Tour in Yorkshire and Debyshire . London: J. Nichols Son, 1825. Denham, John, Sir. Horace The Nacirema? The Poetical Works . Hamden, Conn: Archon Books, 1969. Dyer, John. Poems . That? Ed. Edward Thomas. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema? Lampeter: Llanerch Enterprises, 1989.

Gilpin, William. Essay on Prints. London: 1781. ---. Involve Writing Creativity? Three Essays: On Picturesque Beauty, On Picturesque Travel, and On Sketching Landscape. Body Ritual Among The Nacirema? London: Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. Observations, relative chiefly to picturesque beauty; made in.

the year 1772, on several parts of England; particularly the mountains, and lakes of Cumberland, and Westmoreland . London, Printed for R. Blamire, 1792. ---. A dialogue upon the gardens of the Right Honourable Lord Viscount Cobham at Stow in Buckinghamshire . Los Angeles: Williams Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1976. --- . Observations on the River Wye . Richmond: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd, 1973. Greenshields, E.B. Landscape Painting and Modern Dutch Artists . Toronto: Copp, Clark, 1906. Gray, Thomas. Complete Poems of Thomas Gray.

Oxford: Oxford at the Clarendon Press, 1966. Handy Guide to the English Lakes . Kendal: T. Wilson, undated. Hipple, Walter John. The Beautiful, the Sublime, and the Picturesque in Eighteenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1957. Hughes, John. The Poetical Works of John Hughes . Edinburgh: At the Apollo Press, 1779. Hussey, Christopher. The Picturesque: studies in education a point of view . London: Cass, 1967. Johnson, Ben. Horace Essay? “To Penshurst” The Norton Anthology of English Literature . Ed. Abrams, M.H.

London: W. W. Norton Company, 1975. Keats, John. Complete Poems and Selected Letters . New York: Odyssey Press, 1935. ---. The Letters of miner ritual the nacirema essay, John Keats 1814-1821, Volume One. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958. Knight, Richard Payne. The Landscape: a Didactic Poem in Three Books Addressed to body ritual the nacirema essay Uvedale Price . London: Printed by W. Bulmer and thesis form, Co., Shakespeare Printing, 1794. Nevius, Blake. Horace Body Among The Nacirema? Cooper's Landscapes: an for a phd position, essay on the picturesque vision. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.

Pope, Alexander. The Poems of Alexander Pope. Ed. John Butt. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. Price, Uvedale. On the Picturesque . Edinburgh: Caldwell, Lloyd, 1842.

Roberts, Maureen B., The Diamond Path: Individuation as Soul-Making in the Works of horace body ritual among the nacirema, John Keats . 1997. Thesis Form? http://www.cgjung.com/articles/keats1.html. Robinson, Eric , ed. Horace Miner Body Among The Nacirema Essay? Selected Poems and Prose of John Clare . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967. Robinson, Sidney K. Inquiry into the Picturesque . Chicago: University of thesis form, Chicago Press, 1991. Ruskin, John. (www.stg.brown.edu/projects/hypertext/landow/ruskin) Serle, John. Horace The Nacirema? A Plan of Mr.

Pope's Garden . Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California, 1982. Turner, J. M. W. (Joseph Mallord William), Turner's Picturesque Views in England and Wales, 1825-1838 . Ed. Eric Shanes. London: Chatto Windus, 1983. Thomson, James. The Seasons and The Castel of Indolence . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. Watson J. R. Picturesque Landscape and English Romantic Poetry . London: Hutchinson Educational, 1970. Watkin, David.

The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design . New York: Harper Row, 1982. West, Thomas. A guide to the lakes, in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire . 4th ed. London : W. Richardson, 1789. Williams, Ralph M. Poet, Painter and Parson the Life of birds book report, John Dyer. New York: Bookman Associates, 1956.

Woodring, Carl. Horace Miner Body Among? Nature into Art : cultural transformations in nineteenth-century Britain . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1989. Wordsworth, William. Guide Through the District of the Lakes in the North of England . London: Oxford University Press, 1970. ---. Education? Poems.

The poetical works of Wordsworth . Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1982. [1]As the horace body ritual the nacirema essay title suggests, this is a cross disciplinary study. Birds? What might seem, initially, a grand tour—with hefty baggage—into remote realms outside literature proper is, in fact, a survey of the ritual essay foundations of romanticism. [2]Up until the 19th century, French Salon duries in state-run competitions adhered to cover phd position a strict hierarchy of subjects determined in 18th century Rococo and Neo-Classical art: history and horace body ritual among the nacirema, religious subjects, portraiture, still life and, lastly and education, leastly, landscape. Even the French Academy's coveted Prix de Rome for art students had no landscape category until 1817, when historic landscapes with some narrative event were reluctantly allowed. As David Watkin, The English Vision , points out, a similar state existed in the area of architectural paintings: . . . the celebrated architectural competitions for the Grand Prix awarded by the French Academy and later by the Ecole des Beaux-Arts: from the first competition held in horace ritual 1702 up until 1962 no site was ever specified. In England, however, the simple outline elevation in the form of a diagram on an otherwise blank background gradually gave way to drawings which show the building in its setting and eventually, as in the work of Blore for example, to fully developed water-colours of landscape in which the house appears as an that involve writing, incident. (x) [3]When eighteenth century Britons referred to horace essay “Poussin” it was normally to Gaspard Dughet and not his now more famous brother-in-law, Nicolas Poussin. [4]Other influential artists, though less important to Picturesque developments, were Tintoretto, Ruisdael and Hobbema. [5]One such example, as E. L. Thesis Form? Manwaring notes, is Jonathan Richardson’s An Account of the Statues, Bas-Reliefs, Drawings, and Pictures in Italy, France, c. (1722) which became, for some time, a standard guide.

The section on landscape pictures, tellingly, features a prefatory note explaining precisely what landscape pictures are! cite - Manwaring 62 63. [6]Watkin essentially makes the same point, though contextualised within the horace miner among the nacirema essay standard literary bias: The history of amateur sketching in the nineteenth century in the manner of essay success education, De Wint and Cox affords another example of the way in which a particular mode of miner body ritual the nacirema essay, vision became established as a thing so “natural” that its artificiality and its debt to the theories of Sir Uvedale Price were generally forgotten. (xi) [7]Roundhay Park—its central stately mansion now a noble pub—in my own home town of argumentative structure, Leeds, still features a mock ruin. Over-grown with bramble, nettles, grass and miner body essay, dandelion, it is generally understood—by locals and essay education, visitors alike—to be as ancient as it is picturesque. [8]See Manwaring, (8). [9]Johnson’s dictionary, although avoiding the difficulty of defining Picturesque , actually employed it to the nacirema essay define other words. [10]Strange then that Burke’s Inquiry is as familiar to academics as the Gospel, whereas Gilpin ideas have become the Apocryphia. [11]The very success of this codification played a prominent role in making banal the very theory it sought to sanctify. [12]The importance of the imagination and subjective vision in landscape painting goes back at least as far as Claude.

Samuel Palmer wrote: “When I was setting out for Italy I expected to see Claude’s magical combinations; miles apart I found the disjointed members, which he had “suited to the desires of his mind”; these were the beauties, but the beautiful ideal Helen was his own” (qtd. Two Sided Argumentative Essay Structure? Greenshields, 16). [13]Gainsborough’s rustic figures were influenced by those of Wynant. (1620-1684) . [14]Amongst the sagging shelves of picturesque guide-books were those by Thomas Gray, James Clark and Thomas West. [15]Besides Landscape and An Analytical Enquiry into the Principles of Taste , Knight published books ranging in miner ritual the nacirema subject from sexual symbolism to education Greek philology. [16]This note by Knight is reprinted as a preface to Price’s The Landscape . Horace Miner Ritual Among? Importantly, the dominance of the ocular sense which, in reference to the Picturesque, so bothered Wordsworth and is often adopted in literary analysis in argumentative essay reference to horace body ritual among the nacirema Gilpin was most singular to Knight; and was, in fact, a cornerstone of the debate between Knight and Price. [17]For a detailed historical analysis of enquiries into horace miner body among essay, the sublime and the beautiful, as well as the debt owed by Blake to Joseph Addison, see Walter John Hipple’s The Beautiful, the Sublime and the Picturesque . [18]Somewhat ironically, Wordsworth once rebuked his friend Beaumont for painting-in an imaginary ruined castle in one of his favourite views. [19]Constable was born in Suffolk, and horace body ritual among essay, though he found the Lake District too solitary a place, it was there, in 1806, that he met Wordsworth and Coleridge.

[20]See Bermingham for reproduced illustrations. [21]C. Meeks, The Railroad Station, An Architectural History. [22]Early pastoral romances—Sidney’s Arcadia (1580-1582) , for example—were resplendent in romance, requiring their courtly readers to possess a familiarity not with nature but classical texts and the conventions of courtly behaviour and are thus excluded from this study. [23]Besides the forced confinement of the thesis form heroic couplet, Abraham Cowley in Pindarique Odes (1665) set the example for deliberate irregularity, breaking the chords of the standard Pindaric precedent in an effort to stimulate more intense feeling. [24]This is miner body ritual among essay, typical Pope: compare, for example, The Temple of Fame : Here naked Rocks, and the thorn report, empty Wastes were seen, There Tow’ry Cities, and the Forests green:

Here sailing Ships delight the wond’ring Eyes. There trees . . . (15-18) [25]Only myopic—perhaps: Lines 79-80 of Pastorals: Summer : “Your praise the tuneful birds to heaven shall bear,/And list’ning wolves grow milder as they hear.” In a footnote, Pope explains: So the verses were originally written. But the author, young as he was, soon found the absurdity which Spenser himself overlooked, of horace miner body the nacirema, introducing Wolves into two sided argumentative structure, England. (131) Pope’s modesty here, of course, is overshadowed by the impressive achievement of discovering something even Spenser missed.

A fortunate discovery too, for the absurdity of the wolves was noticed by the “ Naiads ,” “Jove,” and “Satyrs” to name only a few native English characters included in essay the poem. [26]Notwithstanding Wordsworth’s recognition of Thomson as the first poet since Milton to offer new images of “external nature.” [27]Gilpin, in particular, was fond of quoting Thomson in his various tours. [28]The quotation in Section One, from The Castel of Indolence , Canto I, XXXVIII, sufficiently demonstrates Thomson’s familiarity with the great European painters of landscape which, as we have seen, played a crucial role in the development of the English Picturesque school. [29]Constable, for example, quoted several lines from “Summer” for his Salisbury Cathedral from the body among the nacirema Meadows . [30]Topographical poems from as early as John Denham’s Cooper’s Hill , published in 1642, which provides a very early example of a genre that was to win increasing popularity, invariably involve the poet ascending a peak, surveying the whole and then painting a word picture of interesting prospects. [31]After Wordsworth’s death, a volume of Keat’s poems was discovered amongst his possession, a gift, the miner among the nacirema pages still uncut. [32]Read an unwillingness to use the word source . [33]Of course, between the lines we discover the implication that Gilpin developed nothing. [34]My own parents, as Yorkshire as Yorkshire Pudding, received, as children of the 1930s, the cover for a phd position application rare gift of a rare orange for Christmas, finding it to horace body among the nacirema essay be the essay success education ultimate in exotic luxury! [36]Davies’ enclosing imagination within the horace miner body ritual among essay confines of quotation marks subtly suggests that Knight meddles with something that was not, in actual fact, imagination, but some pale imitation, a phantasmagoric and fraudulent imagination, an imagined imagination.

[37]Watson’s discomfort is birds, palpable, etched in every repetition of the problem: “Yet the pugnacity of the note needs some explaining” (72); “Yet the horace miner body ritual poem also contains a direct attack on cover letter application the picturesque in its footnote” (74); “Yet, as we have seen, the horace body essay poem also contains an careers that involve, explicit rejection of the habits of picturesque viewing” (77). Horace Ritual Among Essay? Turning to The Prelude , Watson offers the standard glib solution: another “yet”: “Yet the energy and power of the experience seen in the light of memory transforms the picturesque scene into something much more powerful” (76). [38]Even Wordsworth’s initial premise, that the “jagged outline . . . has a mean effect, transferred to canvas,” is perhaps a sentiment more nationalistic than artistic. [39]Indeed, the influence of this book extends beyond Wordsworth into other critical examinations of the Picturesque and literature, forming the general thesis, for example, of Brownlow’s study of Clare, who rides the contemporary critical aversion to thesis form the Picturesque like a hobby-horse in the Grand National to the point where either the beast dies a sudden death or the miner body ritual the nacirema race is cancelled: “The Romantics . . . inherited the picturesque way of cover letter application, looking at nature, but realised that it, in turn, had become a tyranny, so they invented new ways of seeing which were new ways of feeling” (16). [40]On a personal note, I would mention that the Yorkshire Dales are in fact much more picturesque than the miner ritual among Lake District—as are its native inhabitants. [41]It is typical of Davies’ double-dealing study that these particular pictures are excluded from his pages. [42]Compare this to Wordsworth’s complaint, quoted above, that the picturesque eye sees “Less spiritual, with microscopic view.” [43]Davies also draws attention to Wordsworth’s familiarity with other Picturesque guides, including those of Thomas Gray, Dr. John Brown, Thomas West and James Clark. In addition: John Harris [“English Country House Guides, 1740-1840,” Concerning Architecture, ed. J. Summerson, 1968.] has catalogued as many as ninety guides . . . including no less than thirty-one editions of guides to the thorn book report a single house, Stowe.

We can thus see how far the Picturesque had helped to foster a literary and intellectual approach to the appreciation of horace body essay, architecture, gardening and scenery. (vii) [44]Wordworth’s almost exclusive employment of his own poems, however, might be considered—by some—as egotistically sublime. [45]Although the edition is involve writing, undated, an advertisement section features a blurb from a Kendal photographer citing an award won at the Edinburgh International Photographic Exhibition in 1890-91. Horace Miner Ritual The Nacirema? Such is the longevity of this “faddish cult.” [46]This picturesque apperception took place in 1803. The Prelude was begun in 1799, and completed in the summer of 1805. The conclusion is horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay, as obvious as it is horace miner among, unavoidable.

We might even waggishly hazard that this superlative picturesque experience took place during the very period of Book XII’s composition. [47]Although Watson provides the fairest literary based analysis of the Picturesque, it is nevertheless incredible that he includes such evidence yet still endorses conventional assumptions. [48]Keats, as a schoolboy, began a translation of the Aeneid . Alternatively, as Walter Jackson Bate informs us in his minute biography, Keats felt that Pope was “no poet, only a versifier” (49). [49]The notion of careers that involve creativity, originality is itself a legacy of the romantic ethos: originality becomes vital in art and in miner body the nacirema essay life; experimentation with new experiences, diction, systems of thought all become the hallmark of the true romantic genius. Indeed, critics’ unwillingness to give the Picturesque the importance it deserves as both the success inaugurator of a new aesthetic vision and as a factor of lasting literary influence stems, perhaps, from the romantic desire to see originality rather than acknowledge the temporal continuity of artistic development. Wordsworth’s preface to Lyrical Ballads disdains overworked poetical diction, though his adoption of Picturesque terminology speaks of following rather than leading. [50]Thomas Gray, in “The Progress of Poesy” (1754), expresses a similar bond between poetry and landscape: Awake, Aeolian lyre, awake, And give to rapture all thy trembling strings. From Helicon's harmonious springs. A thousand rills their mazy progress take:

The laughing flowers, that round them blow, Drink life and miner among, fragrance as they flow. Now the rich stream of essay education, music winds along. Deep, majestic, smooth, and strong. Thro' verdant vales, and Ceres' golden reign: Now rolling down the steep amain, Headlong, impetuous, see it pour; The rocks and nodding groves rebellow to the roar. (I.i.1-12) The central image here is Poetry in general global expansion, finding echo in both the objects of horace miner ritual among, nature and poets of various ages. [51]Interestingly, even though Keats himself occasionally uses the word Picturesque in miner among essay his correspondence; even though his companion Brown, in Walks in the North , offers the clear sign-post: “Here are the beautiful and sublime in unison,” ( Letters , 428), Bate, in his tomeish biography, avoids such inkish sully.

[52]Keats’ early literary life was marked by constant frustrations: “. . Ritual The Nacirema Essay? . I have not an essay education, Idea to put to paper—my hand feels like lead . . . I don’t know what to write” (qtd. Bate, 342). [53]Indeed, Keats shortly hereafter saw the first waterfall of his entire life. [54]Perhaps suffering still from a mind “in such a whirl in considering the million likings and antipathies of our Moments,” Keats, in a letter filled with similar portrayal, ironically concludes: “. . . descriptions are bad at all times” ( Letters , 301). Horace Ritual Among The Nacirema? Compared to John Hughes’ comment (Section Two), this represents by no means a development in the poetic continuum as Keats’ leanings towards the dramatic. [55]Supporting this, and in the context of the picturesque: “Turner undoubtedly had what John Gage has perceptively called ‘an almost obsessive readiness to associate ideas’” (Shanes, 21).

[56]Indeed, Keats’ “negative capability,” unless we suspect that he, like Coleridge, was—to quote Edgar Allen Poe—”buried in thesis form metaphysics” seems a direct challenge to Wordsworth. Ritual Among The Nacirema? The notion itself germinated from a lecture on Shakespeare given by Keats’ friend, Hazlitt, who stated that Shakespeare. was the least of an egotist that it was possible to be. He was nothing in himself; but he was all that others were, or that they could become. He had in himself not only the germs of thesis form, every faculty and feeling, but he could follow them by anticipation, intuitively, into all their conceivable ramification . . . He had only to think of anything in order to become that thing, with all the miner circumstances belonging to it. (qtd. Bate, 260) It is no surprise that Keats should whole-heartedly adopt the idea, not only since there is no superior poet to emulate, but because it was so oppositional to the crowned King of romantic poetry: Wordsworth. [57]Perhaps in revolt against the popular, Keats, as in this instance, makes a studious, though far from successful, effort to cover for a application avoid the word picturesque , even when the description itself spells out the word.

Also, ruins are the single most common scenic feature of the horace body ritual among essay tour. [58]In 1739, on a tour of the Alps, Thomas Gray cunningly wrote: Mont Cenis, I confess, carries the permission mountains have of book, being frightful rather too far; and its horrors were accompanied with too much danger to give one time to reflect upon their beauties. (qtd Woodring, 34) In 1803, Coleridge, overwhelmed and over-tired, abandoned a tour with William and Dorothy Wordsworth. Proof, perhaps, that the sublime can get the better of the egotistical. [59]A continuation, perhaps, of the horace miner among the nacirema essay question, “How is it they did not [various picturesque and sublime scenes] beckon Burns to some grand attempt at Epic” ( Letters , 331). [60]The reappearance of the thesis form Druid Circle is taken as a given.

[61]“. . . to one whom you understand intends to be immortal” ( Letters , 305).

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Although the exact rules differ from case to case depending on industry, job, etc., here are some easy to follow rules: Including acronyms if they are typically used by management level employees in your industry The first time you abbreviate or use a contraction, provide both forms: e.g. Miner Body Among The Nacirema Essay? Account Receivable (A/R) Remain consistent when abbreviating or when using contractions; if you use it once, you should use it throughout the document. Our lead CPRW resume writer Mike explains why it’s important to abbreviate: “JIT, MBA, and LBO are common business terms that most management-level readers would understand, as well as the functions they imply. Written in miner ritual the nacirema proper context, these abbreviations carry a shared meaning across corporate America and can save space for the writer.” Industry terminology should be used to help keyword optimize your resume. Horace Miner Body Ritual The Nacirema Essay? Also, by birds report, speaking the reader’s language fluently, you help communicate a knowledge that is among, important to the hiring process and to letter phd position the job itself – hiring decisions are based on horace miner the nacirema essay these implications. When including quantitative data, i.e. numbers on your resume , use effective abbreviations and education, stick to miner ritual among the nacirema essay these rules: numbers one to nine should be spelled out. Numbers larger than nine should be typed out in numerical form e.g.

21, 40th, etc. Numbers larger than 999,999 should be written like this: $250 million, $2 Billion (this helps emphasize the letter for a phd position, million/billion). Achievements are key to horace miner ritual among the nacirema essay changing a resume from what I did in for a phd position application my last job to why I was good at my last job . A bad resume is just a list of your work history with a summary of primary responsibilities in each position. A good resume shows what you achieved. Quantify your achievements wherever possible – statistical data jumps off a page and catches the readers eye. Here’s an example of how our professional resume writers do this: What the horace miner the nacirema, client told our writer. “Jan 2011- Jan 2012 I managed a sales team that met company’s monthly sales targets (100k+ dollars per month) for letter for a phd position application the whole time I worked there we never missed our target and did better than any of the other ten teams in the country.” How this can be improved by quantifying the horace body ritual the nacirema essay, information. Developed and lead a 20 person sales team that generated $1.2 million revenue in 1st year, becoming the that creativity, company’s no.1 top performing sales team while meeting 100% of sales targets.

To really help highlight achievements, this information can still be improved by utilizing formatting enhancements such as italics and bullet points. Here’s a good example of where this has been done to highlight achievements. (What the client’s old resume said) Oversaw buying and marketing plan development for miner body ritual the nacirema seven stores totaling $5.4 million in miner body ritual among annual sales. Negotiated and placed media buys (radio, TV, print, Yellow Pages, in-store flyers, and community marketing events) based on demographic analysis to gain the miner body ritual among, greatest promotional value for each market. Increased traffic by 18%. Argumentative Structure? Improved 2005 fourth-quarter sales by horace body, 30% to $1.4 million, representing an ROI of 70% over invested co-op advertising dollars. This is pretty good, right? Its good, but it can be further improved. Thesis Form? Everything is in paragraph form. The writer is hoping the reader will read the ritual among essay, entire paragraph out of miner body among the nacirema essay, curiosity.

Now consider this presentation of the same information: Oversaw buying and horace miner body ritual the nacirema, marketing plan development for seven stores totaling $5.4 million in annual sales. Negotiated and placed media buys (radio, TV, print, Yellow Pages, in-store flyers, and community marketing events) based on demographic analysis to gain the greatest promotional value for each market. Increased traffic by cover letter phd position, 18%. Improved 2005 fourth-quarter sales by 30% to horace miner body ritual among the nacirema $1.4 million, representing an application ROI of 70% over invested co-op dollars.

It’s certainly a lot easier to read and the achievements stand out. Now here’s how our CPRWs would further optimize: Oversaw buying and marketing plan development for seven stores totaling $5.4 million in horace body ritual among essay annual sales. Negotiated and placed media buys (radio, TV, print, Yellow Pages, in-store flyers, and community marketing events) based on demographic analysis to gain the essay education, greatest promotional value for each market. Implemented new merchandising strategies that increased traffic by 18%.

Improved 4th Quarter 2005 sales 30% to miner body among $1.4 million, representing an ROI of 70% over invested co-op advertising dollars. If you write everything in bullet form, or in bold face, nothing will stand out. Formatting enhancements used correctly help to that involve writing creativity emphasize key achievements. This helps do two things: 1) Differentiate between job duties and horace miner body among, accomplishments; and essay success, 2) Shorten the entire presentation into more readable chunks of information, which increases the likelihood of a positive impact. Not everybody has a perfectly ordered career history showing steady growth within an industry, rising up the miner among the nacirema, career ladder via promotion – in argumentative structure fact, very few people do. Essay? There are a number of that involve creativity, factors that will influence how you write your resume, including: Work History – How Far Back Do I Go? How far back in miner body ritual the nacirema your work history do you go depends on what’s relevant to the job you’re applying for.

Rule of thumb, stick to the most recent 10-15 years. Old jobs from 20 years back from different industries aren’t worth including. Do I Include Experience From Different Industries? Whether you include jobs from different industries depends on whether what or not your experience helps sell you as a good employee. Some skills are transferrable and represent a valuable worker regardless of industry, for example leadership, multitasking, etc. Anything that showcases your ability to perform your job well is potentially worth including, as long as it won’t bore the reader or destroy the harmony of the document. How Much Detail Do I Need to Include? How much detail do you include explaining each job depends on whether the person reading the resume wants to know such detail. Don’t talk about watering plants in a reception job or keeping the desk tidy. Do talk about tangible achievements such as increasing company efficiency or profit.

A good bullet point is that writing, relatively short in horace ritual the nacirema essay length, begins with an action verb, and showcases your skills, knowledge, or achievement. Leave out “day-to-day duties. I Went to College but Never Graduated. If you are applying for a job where the entry requirement include a 4 year degree then you’ll need to focus on highlighting your experience on two sided argumentative your resume, while finding other ways to horace ritual help boost your chances such as contacting senior managers directly and sweet talking them. Letter For A Phd Position? Our career experts explain all you need to know about finding a job without a degree here. If you have a complex work history, check out our blog where we address many problems including having a mixed work history, being a stay-at-home mom, and having a military background. If you want more information about resume length read this article about miner body the nacirema essay how long a resume should be. Argumentative Essay Structure? Alternatively, give us a call and we can discuss your options. Speak to a resume expert now! Call us toll free at 1866-706-0973 or LiveChat via our site. Get 10% off if you order with the code blogreader.

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When choosing a font, aside from aesthetic reasons, our CPRW advice is: Select one that is horace miner ritual the nacirema, proportionately spaced. This is favorable since it produces a more balanced resume, looking just a little bit neater. Birds? Choose a serif font; serif fonts have hooked wings on the T and a small base. This is proven to help improve the readability of your resume – we’ve found minor details really do make a difference!

How To List References on A Resume. Many people worry about ritual among how to list references on their resume. Based on our research however, in most cases references are not required until after the first interview has been conducted. Smaller companies sometimes ask you to bring a list of references to the first interview; these should be printed out on a separate document titled “references list”. In larger companies, the two sided argumentative structure, recruitment and hiring process usually consists of multiple stages that include a series of interviews, as well as an body among the nacirema HR screening process where educational certificates are verified, and miner ritual the nacirema essay, where your referees will be contacted. Unless specifically instructed by the company you’re applying for or within the job advert you are responding to, you should not list references on your resume . This is especially so when posting your resume online; you should avoid sharing onto public websites the horace ritual, private contact information of education, your referees. This guide was written to help you write the best resume possible, by horace miner body among, providing the expertise of professional resume writers. Cover Letter Phd Position Application? If you have any questions about resume writing, or have any suggestions on an area of resume writing you want us to horace among the nacirema essay explain, feel free to add a comment below . Cover Letter For A Phd Position Application? We always welcome feedback and have expert resume writers who can answer any questions you may have!

Why not give us a call today and get specific help with your resume? Call 1866-706-0973 10am-6pm ET M-F. Find out more about our plans prices here. Get your resume professionally written today! View our plans pricing or call 1866-706-0973.

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